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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 300400 matches for " Lisa J Dunnett "
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Phylogenetic biodiversity assessment based on systematic nomenclature
Ross H Crozier,Lisa J Dunnett,Paul-Michael Agapow
Evolutionary Bioinformatics , 2005,
Abstract: Biodiversity assessment demands objective measures, because ultimately conservation decisions must prioritize the use of limited resources for preserving taxa. The most general framework for the objective assessment of conservation worth are those that assess evolutionary distinctiveness, e.g. Genetic (Crozier 1992) and Phylogenetic Diversity (Faith 1992), and Evolutionary History (Nee & May 1997). These measures all attempt to assess the conservation worth of any scheme based on how much of the encompassing phylogeny of organisms is preserved. However, their general applicability is limited by the small proportion of taxa that have been reliably placed in a phylogeny. Given that phylogenizaton of many interesting taxa or important is unlikely to occur soon, we present a framework for using taxonomy as a reasonable surrogate for phylogeny. Combining this framework with exhaustive searches for combinations of sites containing maximal diversity, we provide a proof-of-concept for assessing conservation schemes for systematized but un-phylogenised taxa spread over a series of sites. This is illustrated with data from four studies, on North Queensland flightless insects (Yeates et al. 2002), ants from a Florida Transect (Lubertazzi & Tschinkel 2003), New England bog ants (Gotelli & Ellison 2002) and a simulated distribution of the known New Zealand Lepidosauria (Daugherty et al. 1994). The results support this approach, indicating that species, genus and site numbers predict evolutionary history, to a degree depending on the size of the data set.
Phylogenetic biodiversity assessment based on systematic nomenclature
Ross H Crozier,Lisa J Dunnett,Paul-Michael Agapow
Evolutionary Bioinformatics , 2006,
Abstract: Biodiversity assessment demands objective measures, because ultimately conservation decisions must prioritize the use of limited resources for preserving taxa. The most general framework for the objective assessment of conservation worth are those that assess evolutionary distinctiveness, e.g. Genetic (Crozier 1992) and Phylogenetic Diversity (Faith 1992), and Evolutionary History (Nee & May 1997). These measures all attempt to assess the conservation worth of any scheme based on how much of the encompassing phylogeny of organisms is preserved. However, their general applicability is limited by the small proportion of taxa that have been reliably placed in a phylogeny. Given that phylogenizaton of many interesting taxa or important is unlikely to occur soon, we present a framework for using taxonomy as a reasonable surrogate for phylogeny. Combining this framework with exhaustive searches for combinations of sites containing maximal diversity, we provide a proof-of-concept for assessing conservation schemes for systematized but un-phylogenised taxa spread over a series of sites. This is illustrated with data from four studies, on North Queensland flightless insects (Yeates et al. 2002), ants from a Florida Transect (Lubertazzi & Tschinkel 2003), New England bog ants (Gotelli & Ellison 2002) and a simulated distribution of the known New Zealand Lepidosauria (Daugherty et al. 1994). The results support this approach, indicating that species, genus and site numbers predict evolutionary history, to a degree depending on the size of the data set.
A spatially explicit whole-system model of the lignocellulosic bioethanol supply chain: an assessment of decentralised processing potential
Alex J Dunnett, Claire S Adjiman, Nilay Shah
Biotechnology for Biofuels , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-1-13
Abstract: Ethanol production costs for current technologies decrease significantly from $0.71 to $0.58 per litre with increasing economies of scale, up to a maximum single-plant capacity of 550 × 106 l year-1. The development of high-yielding energy crops and consolidated bio-processing realises significant cost reductions, with production costs ranging from $0.33 to $0.36 per litre. Increased feedstock yields result in systems of eight fully integrated plants operating within a 500 × 500 km2 region, each producing between 1.24 and 2.38 × 109 l year-1 of pure ethanol. A limited potential for distributed processing and centralised purification systems is identified, requiring developments in modular, ambient pretreatment and fermentation technologies and the pipeline transport of pure ethanol.The conceptual and mathematical modelling framework developed provides a valuable tool for the assessment and optimisation of the lignocellulosic bioethanol supply chain. In particular, it can provide insight into the optimal configuration of multiple plant systems. This information is invaluable in ensuring (near-)cost-optimal strategic development within the sector at the regional and national scale. The framework is flexible and can thus accommodate a range of processing tasks, logistical modes, by-product markets and impacting policy constraints. Significant scope for application to real-world case studies through dynamic extensions of the formulation has been identified.The penetration of biomass-derived ethanol (bioethanol) into the road transport fuels market has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, improve fuel security, stimulate the agricultural sector and provide new markets for technology development and application. The 2006 global market for bioethanol was 20.2 million tonnes oil equivalent (mtoe), and was dominated by US and Brazilian production and consumption (45.4% and 43.9% of the total, respectively). Global growth (averaging 10.9% since 2001) has be
Percepción del público hacia plantaciones de herbáceas ornamentales
García-Albarado, J. C.;Dunnett, N.;
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura , 2009,
Abstract: studies in environmental psychology in north america and western europe suggest that people of the city tend to value the contact with nature. an ecological style, naturalistic approach, might be an appropriate alternative because it promotes the minimal use of inputs in the establishment and management of planting schemes (substrates, fertilizers) it consideres species adapted to the site and it promotes widespread acceptance amoungst users. however, there is evidence of a difference in perception towards these alternatives according to age and gender of the public. therefore this research aimed to study the perceptions of users (n = 300) according to these variables into ecological and formal herbaceous plantings, both located in the main entrance of endcliffe park in sheffield, uk. thus, the professional landscape designers could consider these principles to design more sustainable plantatings with a more "democratic" sense. this could be done by considering the positive aspects of both plantings. the evaluation was done by questionnaire in site. the results indicated more positive attitudes towards the ecological planting by women and users between 31 and 60 years of age. by contrast, formal plantings were perceived more positively by men and the group of 18 to 30 and up to 61 years of age. the differences found in men and women and age may be due to cultural factors or evolutionary theories. through this study there were found positive aspects that could let to promote more sustainable planting schemes with greater acceptance by the laid public.
Potential cellular and regenerative approaches for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease
Emma L Lane,Olivia J Handley,Anne E Rosser,Stephen B Dunnett
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2008,
Abstract: Emma L Lane, Olivia J Handley, Anne E Rosser, Stephen B DunnettBrain Repair Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, CF10 3US, UKAbstract: Parkinson’s disease is most commonly treated with a range of pharmacotherapeutics, with the more recent introduction of surgical techniques including deep-brain stimulation. These have limited capabilities to improve symptoms of the disease in more advanced stages, thus new therapeutic strategies including the use of viral vectors and stem cells are in development. Providing a continuous supply of dopamine to the striatum in an attempt to improve the treatment of motor symptoms using enzymes in the dopamine synthesis and machinery is one approach. Alternatively, there are tools which may serve to both protect and encourage outgrowth of surviving neurons using growth factors or to directly replace lost innervation by transplantation of primary tissue or stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons. We summarize some of the potential therapeutic approaches and also consider the recent EU directives on practical aspects of handling viral vectors, cells and tissues, and in the running of clinical trials in Europe which impact on their development.Keywords: transplantation, viral vector, stem cells, ethics, European Union directive
Form and Function in Grammar Teaching
J. E. Lisa Meyer
TEFLIN Journal , 1998,
Abstract: :In this paper we promote the integration of form-focused grammar teaching with a communicative approach to language learn -ing. After discussion of several principles of L2 acquisition and their pedagogic implications, we recommend a four-stage lesson plan which helps the teacher to focus on a communicative function while presenting a specific grammatical structure. In the proposed lesson structure, teachers are encouraged to guide student. Exploration, dis -covery, and application of grammatical information during specific lesson stages. This type of lesson should pave the way for students to do more than master practice worksheets. One of the greatest ben -efits of this type of lesson is that it gives teachers the confidence to integrate a grammatical focus into their language lessons without violating the essence of communicative approach.
Collaborative Event Ethnography: Conservation and development trade-offs at the fourth world conservation congress
Brosius J,Campbell Lisa
Conservation & Society , 2010,
Abstract:
Aorta Measurements are Heritable and Influenced by Bicuspid Aortic Valve
Lisa J. Martin
Frontiers in Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2011.00061
Abstract: Objectives: To determine whether the contributions of genetics and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) independently influence aortic (Ao) dimensions. Background: Ao dilation is a risk factor for aneurysm, dissection, and sudden cardiac death. Frequent association of BAV with Ao dilation implicates a common underlying defect possibly due to genetic factors. Methods: Families enriched for BAV underwent standardized transthoracic echocardiography. In addition to BAV status, echocardiographic measures of Ao (annulus to descending Ao), pulmonary artery, and mitral valve annulus (MVA) diameters were obtained. Using variance components analysis, heritability was estimated with and without BAV status. Additionally, bivariate genetic analyses between Ao dimensions and BAV were performed. Results: Our cohort was obtained from 209 families enriched for BAV. After adjusting for age, body surface area, and sex, individuals with BAV had a statistically significant increase in all echocardiographic measurements (p < 0.006) except descending Ao and MVA. Individuals with BAV were at greater odds of having Ao dilation (OR = 4.44, 95% CI 2.93–6.72) than family members without BAV. All echocardiographic measurements exhibited moderate to strong heritability (0.25–0.53), and these estimates were not influenced by inclusion of BAV as a covariate. Bivariate genetic analyses supported that the genetic correlation between BAV and echo measures were not significantly different from zero. Conclusion: We show for the first time that echocardiographic measurements of Ao, pulmonary artery and MVA diameters are quantitative traits that exhibit significant heritability. In addition, our results suggest the presence of BAV independently influences the proximal Ao and pulmonary artery measures but not those in the descending Ao or MVA.
Recent Results in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay
Lisa J. Kaufman
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The search for neutrinoless double beta decay is a rich source for new physics. The observation of this decay will lead to understanding of the absolute mass scale of neutrinos, the Majorana nature of the neutrino (whether the neutrino is its own anti-particle), and lepton number violation. Double beta decay is being investigated around the world by several experiments using different candidate isotopes. There has been much progress made in experimental techniques recently such that achieving sensitivity to neutrino masses at 50 meV and below will be possible in the near future. A summary of recent results in neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed with a look toward the experimental goals for the future.
Examining the Role of Personality Factors in Problematic Video Game Play Associated with Facebook Games  [PDF]
Steve J. Groves, Jason L. Skues, Lisa Z. Wise
Social Networking (SN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2015.43010
Abstract: The current study used the structural components of Facebook games to select predictors of Problematic Video Game Play (PVGP) in relation to Facebook games. Based upon how game design and structure may interact with personality characteristics, the current study examined the effects of hypercompetitiveness, narcissism, reward responsiveness and psychological absorption on PVGP for a group of Facebook gamers. Moreover, the present study also observed how results may differ between Facebook gamers (n = 102), and a group of other (non-Facebook) gamers (n = 132). The Facebook group comprised 84% of females with an average age of 40.39 (SD = 14.00), whereas the other group of gamers consisted of 61% of males with an average age of 24.70 (SD = 7.86). Participants completed an online survey. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) revealed that an interaction between hypercompetitiveness and narcissism was the only significant predictor of PVGP for Facebook gamers. In contrast, a second structural model revealed that both hypercompetitiveness and psychological absorption were significant predictors of PVGP for other types of gamers. The findings from this study had important implications regarding the structure of video games and demographic differences between Facebook Gamers and other types of gamers.
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