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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 156341 matches for " Lisa H Amir "
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Social theory and infant feeding
Lisa H Amir
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-6-7
Abstract: Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success [1]. However, health-related behaviours do not occur in isolation: by recognising the importance of social circumstances we can improve our understanding of infant feeding, thereby improving our ability to increase breastfeeding in our communities.Social scientists can teach us about infant feeding behaviour. Biological anthropologists have compared humans with other primates to estimate the natural duration of breastfeeding in humans [2]. McKenna and colleagues have also used nonhuman primate data, cross-cultural studies and physiological studies to examine the natural ecology of mother-infant sleep [3]. A recent symposium on evolutionary anthropology has further explored this new area of research [4]. Other social scientists have contributed to our understanding of breastfeeding in the context of women's lives [5-9]. Our recent thematic series 'Infant feeding and HIV: lessons learnt and ways ahead' highlights the multiple challenges that HIV-infected women, infant feeding counsellors and health systems face in translating policy - in fact, changing policies - into practice [10]I recently read the work of some researchers in the area of food and nutrition who have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework to be helpful. Warin and colleagues explain "To place food in social context resonates with Bourdieu's (1979/1984) study of food and social class in France. In Distinction: a Social Critique of the Judgement and Taste, Bourdieu argues that food and eating is much more than a process of bodily nourishment: it is an elaborate performance of gender, social class and identity" [11] (p. 98). Danielle Groleau and Charo Rodriguez have found some of Bourdieu's concepts helpful in interpreting their ethnographic interviews of disadvantaged French-Canadian mothers [12]. In this editorial, I aim to int
International Breastfeeding Journal: Introducing a new journal
Lisa H Amir
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-1-1
Abstract: Welcome to International Breastfeeding Journal, a new open access peer-reviewed journal with a multidisciplinary focus.My interest in breastfeeding was sparked when I became a mother in 1984 and began to learn about feeding infants. I was intrigued by the pioneering studies of Niles Newton in which she experimented on the effects of stress on the let-down reflex – on herself [1]. I was unsettled by Maureen Minchin's book Breastfeeding Matters: What We Need to Know About Infant Feeding, first published in 1985, in which she described her own experiences of struggling through breastfeeding problems in 1976 [2] until she came across Mavis Gunther's earlier work on nipple pain [3,4].As a medical student in the 1970s I had received one lecture on infant feeding – with an emphasis on artificial feeding. Breastfeeding rates were low in many developed countries in the mid 1970s, until an interest in natural childbirth and infant feeding resurfaced and mother-to-mother support groups, such as the La Leche League International (LLLI) and the Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia (now the Australian Breastfeeding Association) began grass-roots movements to help mothers breastfeed. By the mid-eighties, volunteer breastfeeding counsellors, such as Chele Marmet realized that it was time to create a new occupation: lactation consulting [5]. The International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners administered the first examination in 1985, and by the time of the 2005 examination there were nearly 15,000 currently certified International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) worldwide, in 65 countries [6]. JoAnne Scott worked tirelessly as IBLCE's executive director from its inception until early 2005 [7]. The professional organisation for IBCLCs, the International Lactation Consultants Association, has recently celebrated 20 years as a new profession with a conference for over 900 participants in Chicago, IL, USA [8] – where LLLI had begun in 1956.The medical profess
A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration
Lisa H Amir, Susan Donath
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-7-9
Abstract: A systematic review was conducted in January and February 2007, using the following databases: Medline, CINAHL and the Australian Breastfeeding Association's Lactation Resource Centre. Studies which have examined maternal obesity and infant feeding intention, initiation, duration and delayed onset of lactation were tabulated and summarised.Studies have found that obese women plan to breastfeed for a shorter period than normal weight women and are less likely to initiate breastfeeding. Of the four studies that examined onset of lactation, three reported a significant relationship between obesity and delayed lactogenesis. Fifteen studies, conducted in the USA, Australia, Denmark, Kuwait and Russia, have examined maternal obesity and duration of breastfeeding. The majority of large studies found that obese women breastfed for a shorter duration than normal weight women, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors.There is evidence from epidemiological studies that overweight and obese women are less likely to breastfeed than normal weight women. The reasons may be biological or they may be psychological, behavioral and/or cultural. We urgently need qualitative studies from women's perspective to help us understand women in this situation and their infant feeding decisions and behaviour.Infants not breastfed have increased risks of ill-health – both short- (e.g. gastrointestinal infections [1]) and long-term (such as diabetes [2]). Recent systematic reviews have shown a dose-dependent association between longer duration of breastfeeding and decrease in the risk of overweight in later life [3,4]. Looking at the population impact, it has been estimated that 13,639 cases of obesity (95%CI 7,838, 19,308) could be prevented in England and Wales over 9 years if all infants were breastfed for at least three months [5].Obesity is an increasing problem globally: populations in poor countries as well as affluent ones are at risk [6]. Reports of obesity among pregnant wo
Survey of patient satisfaction with the Breastfeeding Education and Support Services of The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne
Li Chin, Lisa H Amir
BMC Health Services Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-8-83
Abstract: An anonymous survey was posted on 16 November 2005 and again on 31 January 2006, to all women who had attended BESS in September 2005.The response rate was 60.5% (78/129). Eighty percent (62/78) of respondents attended day-stay, 33% (26/78) attended short-stay and 15% (12/78) attended the outpatient clinic. The percentage of women who responded "strongly agree" to the statement "Overall, I am satisfied with the services" was 49% (35/72) and 50% (6/12) for those who went to day/short-stay and the outpatient clinic respectively. Overall, 56% of all respondents responded that the quality of BESS was "better than expected". The most common breastfeeding problem reported was difficulty attaching the baby to the breast, followed by nipple damage, low milk supply and painful feeding.BESS seems to have provided a satisfactory service to most clients. Most respondents were clearly satisfied with the support given by the IBCLCs and have also responded that the staff were professional and knowledgeable in their field of work.The general aims of breastfeeding clinics are to advise, support and encourage mothers who have left hospital and who wish to breastfeed [1-3]. Breastfeeding clinics in Australia are mostly based in maternity hospitals, predominantly staffed by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) [4]. Clinics generally provide consultations with Lactation Consultants who observe breastfeeding problems through several feeds and write plans to guide the mothers when they return home [4].The Breastfeeding Education and Support Services (BESS) is a unit of The Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, for women experiencing problems with breastfeeding. The unit has developed Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of breastfeeding problems [5] and Fact Sheets for consumers [6].In Victoria, it is routine for all new mothers to attend Maternal and Child Health Centres where they are seen by triple-certificate nurses (qualified in nursing, m
Policy on infant formula industry funding, support or sponsorship of articles submitted for publication
Annette Beasley, Lisa H Amir
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-2-5
Abstract: Despite current scientific evidence that artificial feeding is a harmful practice [1], unquestioned acceptance of breastfeeding as the normal or "default" method of infant feeding [2] remains elusive throughout the industrialised world. The dominance of an infant formula feeding culture is evident through popular beliefs such as "artificial milk feeds [are]...at least as good for the baby (if not actually better) as breast feeding", and ambivalent views associated with "give it a go" attitudes [3]. This lack of a breastfeeding culture in most industrialised nations is the legacy of decades of commercial marketing of infant formula, often endorsed by medical practices [4].Throughout the developing world the profound consequences of the aggressive marketing strategies of the infant formula industry particularly since the end of the Second World War is well known. Public awareness of the tragic outcome of the use of infant formula in the developing world led to a consumer boycott of Nestlé products during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Around this time the first of a series of international strategies designed to reduce infant mortality rates through regulating the promotion of artificial baby milk was implemented. In 1981, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes [5]. The aim of the International Code was "to contribute to the provision of safe and adequate nutrition for infants, by the protection and promotion of breast-feeding, and by ensuring the proper use of breast-milk substitutes, when these are necessary, on the basis of adequate information and through appropriate marketing and distribution" [5] (p.8). While a significant move, universal implementation of the International Code has been hampered by the difficulty of enforcing compliance among members of the infant formula industry and within non-signatory nations.Following the launch of the International Code, the World Health Assembly has i
Infant feeding, poverty and human development
Annette Beasley, Lisa H Amir
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-2-14
Abstract: October 2007 has been dedicated by the Council of Science Editors to the global theme of 'Poverty and Human Development'. The Council's initiative follows earlier successes with simultaneous publications on a global theme across scientific journals. In 1996, 36 journals from 21 countries published articles on 'Emerging and re-emerging global microbial threats'. The following year, 97 journals in 31 countries published on the theme of 'Ageing'. The objective of this strategy is to raise awareness, and to stimulate research and international collaboration on important topics.In a call for submissions on the current global theme of poverty and human development from the perspective of breastfeeding, the International Breastfeeding Journal (IBJ) referred potential contributors to the emerging policy development framework of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding [1]. The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of IBJ's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. In view of the significance of the global theme, the lack of response to the call for papers was disappointing. Nevertheless, it remains important that this journal endorse the intention of the global theme through editorial commentary.The important issue of childhood survival has been highlighted in recent years, with statistics indicating 99% of childhood deaths occur in less-developed countries, and gaps between rich and poor within many countries are increasing [2]. The Lancet series on child survival reported that less than four in ten children are exclusively breastfed for 6 months (in the 42 countries accounting for 90% of deaths in under five year olds in 2000) [3]. There is high quality evidence that infants not exclusively breastfed are at increased risk of death from diarrhoea, pneumonia and neonatal sepsis [4]. It is proposed that ex
Health professionals' advice for breastfeeding problems: Not good enough!
Lisa H Amir, Jennifer Ingram
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-3-22
Abstract: "Acute mastitis is an all too common disease which has not had the attention it deserves" [1] (p. 635).Mastitis is "an inflammatory condition of the breast, which may or may not be accompanied by infection" [2] (p. 1). Scott et al's paper recently published in the International Breastfeeding Journal shows that health professionals are still giving harmful advice to women with mastitis [3]. Ten percent of women were advised to stop breastfeeding and many were prescribed an inappropriate antibiotic [3]. In practice, we regularly hear stories from women with mastitis about incorrect advice they have been given by their health care providers: overuse of antibiotics, misuse of antibiotics (wrong medicine or wrong dose), advice to stop breastfeeding (either because of the mastitis or "concerns" regarding the effect of maternal medicines on the infant), or misplaced emphasis on maternal rest leading to skipping feeds overnight.Mastitis can be seen as an illustration of health professionals' management of wider breastfeeding issues. Mastitis is a problem experienced by 15 to 20% of breastfeeding women [3-5]; women find it distressing, both physically and emotionally [6,7]. Since it is not always caused by an infection, but may be the result of poor milk drainage, it may not require antibiotics (see Breastfeeding Network leaflet for self-help measures [8]). If health professionals don't know how to manage this common problem, how can they be expected to manage less common conditions such as a breast abscess or nipple/breast candidiasis?Mastitis is poorly researched:- compared to breastfeeding in general, there have been few papers on mastitis; a rough estimate using PubMed to search for "mastitis (limited to humans)" and for "breastfeeding" reveals 45 publications about mastitis and 247 about breastfeeding in 1977 (1:5.5) – 30 years later in 2007, there were 81 publications on mastitis and 1386 on breastfeeding (1:17.1);- there is no agreed definition or diagnostic criteria
Do Indonesian medical practitioners approve the availability of emergency contraception over-the-counter? A survey of general practitioners and obstetricians in Jakarta
Dyna E Syahlul, Lisa H Amir
BMC Women's Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-5-3
Abstract: Data were collected by an anonymous structured questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed to general practitioners in 36 Community Health Centres and 25 private clinics using stratified random sampling according to area in Jakarta, and to obstetricians practicising in 24 government and private hospitals and eight private clinics in Jakarta. Two hundred and five general practitioners and 142 obstetricians and gynaecologists participated; overall response rate was 75%.Although most participants were familiar with EC, only 22% received a very good knowledge score (4 or 5/5 answers correct), while 52% received a poor score (0–2/5 correct). Most participants did not support the OTC availability of EC (70%). Logistic regression identified that participants who prescribed EC had an Odds of 3.8 (95% CI 1.90, 7.73) of approving OTC EC, after adjustment for age and speciality.Although many organisations are working towards OTC availability of EC, it needs to be recognized and addressed that doctors who do not prescribe EC are unlikely to support the increased availability of EC.Family planning practitioners and women's health advocates have been campaigning for increased availability of emergency contraception (EC) [1-4]. Grimes and colleagues have stated that EC meets all the criteria for over-the-counter (OTC) use such as low toxicity, no potential for overdose or addiction, no teratogenicity, no need for medical screening, self-identification of need, uniform dosage, and no important drug interactions [2]. In many countries EC is now available OTC from pharmacies, after a consultation with a trained pharmacist, but without a doctor's prescription [5].The progestogen-only regimen, using two 0.75 mg levonorgestrel tablets either together or 12 hours apart, is more effective than the Yuzpe regimen in preventing pregnancy (RR 0.51; 95% CI 0.31, 0.83) [6] and is available pre-packaged as Postinor-2 or Plan B [3,4].Only a small number of studies have examined the attitude of
GPs' decision-making when prescribing medicines for breastfeeding women: Content analysis of a survey
Hiranya S Jayawickrama, Lisa H Amir, Marie V Pirotta
BMC Research Notes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-82
Abstract: GPs providing shared maternity care at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne were surveyed using an anonymous postal survey to determine their knowledge, attitudes and practices on medicines and breastfeeding, in 2007/2008 (n = 640). Content analysis of their response to a question concerning decision-making about the use of medicine for a breastfeeding woman was conducted. A thematic network was constructed with basic, organising and global themes.335 (52%) GPs responded to the survey, and 253 (76%) provided information on the last time they had to decide about the use of medicine for a breastfeeding woman. Conditions reported were mastitis (24%), other infections (24%) and depressive disorders (21%). The global theme that emerged was "complexity of managing risk in prescribing for breastfeeding women". The organising themes were: certainty around decision-making; uncertainty around decision-making; need for drug information to be available, consistent and reliable; joint decision-making; the vulnerable "third party" and infant feeding decision. Decision-making is a spectrum from a straight forward decision, such as treatment of mastitis, to a complicated one requiring multiple inputs and consideration. GPs use more information seeking and collaboration in decision-making when they perceive the problem to be more complex, for example, in postnatal depression.GPs feel that prescribing medicines for breastfeeding women is a contentious issue. They manage the risk of prescribing by gathering information and assessing the possible effects on the breastfed infant. Without evidence-based information, they sometimes recommend cessation of breastfeeding unnecessarily.Both WHO and UNICEF recommend exclusive breastfeeding for six months and continuing breastfeeding together with appropriate complementary feeding for two years or beyond [1]. During the postpartum period and thereafter, lactating women may face numerous health issues needing medicines [2,3]. In a study conduct
A descriptive study of mastitis in Australian breastfeeding women: incidence and determinants
Lisa H Amir, Della A Forster, Judith Lumley, Helen McLachlan
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-62
Abstract: Data from two studies (a randomised controlled trial [RCT] and a survey) have been combined. The RCT (Attachment to the Breast and Family Attitudes to Breastfeeding, ABFAB) which was designed to test whether breastfeeding education in mid-pregnancy could increase breastfeeding duration recruited public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital at 18–20 weeks gestation. A concurrent survey recruited women planning to give birth in the Family Birth Centre (at 36 weeks gestation) and women in the postnatal wards of Frances Perry House (private hospital). All women were followed up by telephone at 6 months postpartum. Mastitis was defined as at least 2 breast symptoms (pain, redness or lump) AND at least one of fever or flu-like symptoms.The 6 month telephone interview was completed by 1193 women. Breastfeeding rates at 6 months were 77% in Family Birth Centre, 63% in Frances Perry House and 53% in ABFAB. Seventeen percent (n = 206) of women experienced mastitis. Family Birth Centre and Frances Perry House women were more likely to develop mastitis (23% and 24%) than women in ABFAB (15%); adjusted odds ratio (Adj OR) ~1.9. Most episodes occurred in the first 4 weeks postpartum: 53% (194/365). Nipple damage was also associated with mastitis (Adj OR 1.7, 95% CI, 1.14, 2.56). We found no association between breastfeeding duration and mastitis.The prevention and improved management of nipple damage could potentially reduce the risk of lactating women developing mastitis.Trial registration (ABFAB): Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN21556494Mastitis is one of the most common problems experienced by women who are breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammation of breast tissue, which may or may not result from infection [1]. It is a painful, distressing condition which may require hospitalisation or lead to a breast abscess. Population-based studies in Australia, where breastfeeding initiation is over 80% and about 50% of women are breastfeeding at six months postpartum [2], have report
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