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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5051 matches for " Lisa Cook "
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Is the Cultural Transmission of Irrelevant Tool Actions in Adult Humans (Homo Sapiens) Best Explained as the Result of an Evolved Conformist Bias?
Nicola McGuigan, Daryl Gladstone, Lisa Cook
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050863
Abstract: Background Recent studies of social learning have revealed that adult humans are “over-imitators” who frequently reproduce a model's causally irrelevant tool actions to the detriment of task efficiency. At present our knowledge of adult over-imitation is limited to the fact that adults do over-imitate, we know very little about the causes of this behavior. The current study aimed to provide novel insights into adult over-imitation by extending a paradigm recently used with human children to explore social aspects of over-imitation. In the child study observers saw two models demonstrate a tool-use task using the same inefficient approach, or two models demonstrate different approaches to the task (one inefficient and one efficient). The manipulation of social influence came in the testing phase where the observer completed the task in the presence of either an inefficient model or an efficient model. Methodology/Principal Findings We adapted the paradigm used in the child study to provide the first systematic exploration of factors which may lead to adult over-imitation including: 1) the presence of the model(s) during testing, 2) the presence of a competing efficient task demonstration, 3) the presence of a majority displaying the inefficient approach, and 4) the ‘removal’ of the experimental context during task completion. We show that the adult participants only over-imitated in conditions where the inefficient strategy was the majority approach witnessed. This tendency towards over-imitation was almost entirely eliminated when the participants interacted with the task when they believed the experiment to be complete. Conclusions Our results suggest that adult over-imitation is best explained as a result of an evolved ‘conformist bias’ argued to be crucial to the transmission of human cultural behavior and one which may be unique in the animal kingdom.
Investor Na?veté and Asset Prices  [PDF]
Jonathan Cook
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.34047
Abstract:

This paper describes strategic behavior in a nonequilibrium model of asset pricing with heterogeneous sophistication. Both risk and return are increasing in the na?veté of investors in the market. Optimal investment involves in considering the effect that na?e investors have on the market. Further, we derive a simple characterization of the asset price dynamics that results from an arbitrary combination of a countably infinite set of investor types.

The Drosophila foraging Gene Mediates Adult Plasticity and Gene–Environment Interactions in Behaviour, Metabolites, and Gene Expression in Response to Food Deprivation
Clement F. Kent,Tim Daskalchuk,Lisa Cook,Marla B. Sokolowski ,Ralph J. Greenspan
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000609
Abstract: Nutrition is known to interact with genotype in human metabolic syndromes, obesity, and diabetes, and also in Drosophila metabolism. Plasticity in metabolic responses, such as changes in body fat or blood sugar in response to changes in dietary alterations, may also be affected by genotype. Here we show that variants of the foraging (for) gene in Drosophila melanogaster affect the response to food deprivation in a large suite of adult phenotypes by measuring gene by environment interactions (GEI) in a suite of food-related traits. for affects body fat, carbohydrates, food-leaving behavior, metabolite, and gene expression levels in response to food deprivation. This results in broad patterns of metabolic, genomic, and behavioral gene by environment interactions (GEI), in part by interaction with the insulin signaling pathway. Our results show that a single gene that varies in nature can have far reaching effects on behavior and metabolism by acting through multiple other genes and pathways.
Reporting Science and Conflicts of Interest in the Lay Press
Daniel M. Cook, Elizabeth A. Boyd, Claudia Grossmann, Lisa A. Bero
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001266
Abstract: Background Forthright reporting of financial ties and conflicts of interest of researchers is associated with public trust in and esteem for the scientific enterprise. Methods/Principal Findings We searched Lexis/Nexis Academic News for the top news stories in science published in 2004 and 2005. We conducted a content analysis of 1152 newspaper stories. Funders of the research were identified in 38% of stories, financial ties of the researchers were reported in 11% of stories, and 5% reported financial ties of sources quoted. Of 73 stories not reporting on financial ties, 27% had financial ties publicly disclosed in scholarly journals. Conclusions/Significance Because science journalists often did not report conflict of interest information, adherence to gold-standard recommendations for science journalism was low. Journalists work under many different constraints, but nonetheless news reports of scientific research were incomplete, potentially eroding public trust in science.
Horizontal gene transfer between Wolbachia and the mosquito Aedes aegypti
Lisa Klasson, Zakaria Kambris, Peter E Cook, Thomas Walker, Steven P Sinkins
BMC Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-33
Abstract: We have discovered a case of HGT, involving two adjacent genes, between the genomes of Wolbachia and the currently Wolbachia-uninfected mosquito Aedes aegypti, an important human disease vector. The lower level of sequence identity between Wolbachia and insect, the transcription of all the genes involved, and the fact that we have identified homologs of the two genes in another Aedes species (Ae. mascarensis), suggest that these genes are being expressed after an extended evolutionary period since horizontal transfer, and therefore that the transfer has functional significance. The association of these genes with Wolbachia prophage regions also provides a mechanism for the transfer.The data support the argument that HGT between Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts has produced evolutionary innovation.Wolbachia pipientis is an intracellular inherited bacterium found in arthropods, where it manipulates host reproduction using phenotypes such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), male killing, parthenogenesis and feminization, and can spread rapidly through insect populations [1]. It is also an obligate mutualist of a number of filarial nematode species [2].Several cases where sections of the Wolbachia genome, sometimes large, have been transferred to the host chromosomes are now known in both insects and nematodes [3-5]. These are either recent events where Wolbachia and host sequences are highly similar or involve extensive pseudogenization [4]. Transcription was reported for 2% of the genes transferred to Drosophila ananassae but the levels were estimated to be 104 to 107 fold lower than for a control gene, act5C [5,6], and it has been argued that this could represent background transcriptional noise (as occurs for many pseudogenes) rather than functional expression [7,8] – translation has yet to be demonstrated. It has therefore been suggested that these fragments are on an evolutionary trajectory to degradation by neutral mutation and play no significan
Validation of the diagnosis of autism in general practitioner records
Eric Fombonne, Lisa Heavey, Liam Smeeth, Laura C Rodrigues, Claire Cook, Peter G Smith, Linyan Meng, Andrew J Hall
BMC Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-4-5
Abstract: Data were abstracted to a case validation form allowing for the identification of developmental symptoms relevant to the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Information on other background clinical and familial features was also abstracted. A subset of 50 notes was coded independently by 2 raters to derive reliability estimates for key clinical characteristics.For 294 subjects (92.5%) the diagnosis of PDD was confirmed after review of the records. Of these, 180 subjects (61.2%) fulfilled criteria for autistic disorder. The mean age at first recording of a PDD diagnosis in the GPRD database was 6.3 years (SD = 4.6). Consistent with previous estimates, the proportion of subjects experiencing regression in the course of their development was 19%. Inter-rater reliability for the presence of a PDD diagnosis was good (kappa = .73), and agreement on clinical features such as regression, age of parental recognition of first symptoms, language delay and presence of epilepsy was also good (kappas ranging from .56 to 1.0).This study provides evidence that the positive predictive value of a diagnosis of autism recorded in the GPRD is high.Of 32 epidemiological surveys of autism and pervasive development disorders (PDDs) included in a recent review [1], 13 were published within the last 5 years. Increased research activity in this field of neuropsychiatry has led to a refinement of the definition of autism that involves a combination of qualitative impairments in language/communication, in social interaction and in patterns of play behaviours and interests. Improved operationalisation of diagnostic definitions within nosographies has occurred (American Psychiatric Association, 1994; World Health Organization, 1992), in parallel with the development of more precise diagnostic instruments such as the Autism Diagnostic Interview [2] and the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule [3]. There has also been an increasing concern by the public about this group of di
Impact of patient characteristics on the risk of influenza/ILI-related complications
Debra E Irwin, Lisa B Weatherby, Wen-Yi Huang, Daniel M Rosenberg, Suzanne F Cook, Alexander M Walker
BMC Health Services Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-1-8
Abstract: Patients with medical reimbursement claims for influenza in the 1996–1997 season were identified from the automated database of a large private New England Insurer (NEI). Influenza care during the 21- day follow-up period was characterized according to age, gender, vaccine status, co-morbidities, prior influenza/ILI episodes, treatments, and recent health care costs and related diagnoses.There were 6,241 patients. Approximately 20% had preexisting chronic lung disease. Overall, 23% had health care services for possible complications, among which respiratory diagnoses were the most common (13%). Two percent of the influenza/ILI episodes involved hospitalization, with a median stay of five days. Factors most strongly predictive of hospitalizations and complications were preexisting malignancy (hospitalizations OR = 3.7 and complications OR = 2.4), chronic heart disease (OR = 3.2 and OR = 1.8), diabetes (OR = 2.2 and OR = 1.7) and recent illnesses that would have counted as complications had they occurred during an influenza/ILI episode (hospitalizations OR = 3.2 and complications OR = 1.5). The same factors affected influenza-related costs and total costs of care as dramatically as they affected complication rates.Influenza/ILI-related costs are driven by the characteristics that predict complications of influenza. Patients with chronic illness and those with recent acute respiratory events are the most likely to experience complications and hospitalizations.Influenza costs the US some 40,000 deaths, 200,000 hospitalizations, and millions of workdays lost each year. [1-3] Most deaths (60–90%) due to influenza occur in patients 65 years and older, but 45–77% of influenza-related hospitalizations occur in patients younger than 65 years old [2,4,5]. High complication rates from influenza in the elderly have also been reported [6,7]. Little is known about influenza-related morbidity and health care costs in younger populations and among those with preexisting conditions s
Rate of first recorded diagnosis of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders in United Kingdom general practice, 1988 to 2001
Liam Smeeth, Claire Cook, Professor Fombonne, Lisa Heavey, Laura C Rodrigues, Peter G Smith, Andrew J Hall
BMC Medicine , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-2-39
Abstract: We analysed the rates of first diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders among people registered with a practice contributing to the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database during the period 1988 to 2001. We included 1410 cases from over 14 million person-years of observation. The main outcome measures were rates of diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders by year of diagnosis, year of birth, gender and geographical region.The rate increased progressively from 0.40/10,000 person-years (95% CI 0.30 to 0.54) in 1991 to 2.98/10,000 (95% CI 2.56 to 3.47) in 2001. A similar change occurred in the age standardised incidence ratios, from 35 (95% CI: 26–47) in 1991 to 365 (95% CI: 314–425) in 2001. The temporal increase was not limited to children born during specific years nor to children diagnosed in a specific time period. The rate of diagnosis of PDDs other than autism rose from zero for the period 1988–1992 to 1.06/10,000 person-years in 2001. The rate of diagnosis of autism also increased but to a lesser extent. There was marked geographical variation in rates, with standardised incidence ratios varying from 66 for Wales to 141 for the South East of England.Better ascertainment of diagnosis is likely to have contributed to the observed temporal increase in rates of diagnosis of PDD, but we cannot exclude a real increase.The term pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) refers to a range of disorders with onset in childhood characterised by abnormalities in the domains of language development, communication abilities and social interactions and by a rigid, repetitive pattern of behaviours and interests [1]. Within PDDs, autism refers to children meeting full diagnostic criteria for the above three domains of developmental impairments and onset before the age of three years. The other PDDs are Asperger's syndrome (a less severe form of PDD with the features described above but without language delay and with intelligence within the normal range), perv
Efficacy of customised foot orthoses in the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy: study protocol for a randomised trial
Shannon E Munteanu, Karl B Landorf, Hylton B Menz, Jill L Cook, Tania Pizzari, Lisa A Scott
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1757-1146-2-27
Abstract: One hundred and forty community-dwelling men and women aged 18 to 55 years with Achilles tendinopathy (who satisfy inclusion and exclusion criteria) will be recruited. Participants will be randomised, using a computer-generated random number sequence, to either a control group (sham foot orthoses made from compressible ethylene vinyl acetate foam) or an experimental group (customised foot orthoses made from semi-rigid polypropylene). Both groups will be prescribed a calf muscle eccentric exercise program, however, the primary difference between the groups will be that the experimental group receive customised foot orthoses, while the control group receive sham foot orthoses. The participants will be instructed to perform eccentric exercises 2 times per day, 7 days per week, for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the total score of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment - Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures will be participant perception of treatment effect, comfort of the foot orthoses, use of co-interventions, frequency and severity of adverse events, level of physical activity and health-related quality of life (assessed using the Short-Form-36 questionnaire - Version two). Data will be collected at baseline, then at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle.This study is the first randomised trial to evaluate the long-term efficacy of customised foot orthoses for the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy. The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the study findings are generalisable to clinical practice.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12609000829213.Achilles tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal disorder, accounting for between 8-15% of all injuries in recreational runners [1-3] and having a cumulative lifetime incidence of approximately 6% in non-athletes and 24% in athletes [4]. Interestingly, one-third of patients with chronic Achil
Restoring Washed Out Bridges so ELearners Arrive at Online Course Destinations Successfully  [PDF]
Ruth Gannon Cook
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.34083
Abstract: This study researched the impact of strategic navigation improvements in an online course selected for the study over one quarter (12 weeks) at a large Midwestern private university. The primary purpose of the study was to see if navigation enhancements and specific graphic enhancements (semiotic tools) in the online course selected for the study could make it easier for adult students to learn new course materials. The study also sought to see if these factors could contribute to increased positive learning experiences and to see whether there might be a higher percentage of completion rates in this enhanced online course than in other online courses at the university. While not generalizable, the findings could provide inferences about which factors could positively influence adult learning in online courses and contribute to increased course completion rates; the study could also provide recommendations on graphic enhancements and online course navigation that positively influence student learning in online courses.
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