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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 33519 matches for " Linn Van Woerkom "
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Snell's Law and Refraction of Electron World Lines by Intense Laser Fields
Ulrich H. Gerlach,Kiam H. Kwa,Linn Van Woerkom
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The dynamics of an electron driven by arbitrary plane wave laser radiation is formulated as a relativistically and mathematically exact refraction process based on an exact index of refraction. This reformulation leads to that index as an indicator of the energy transfer between the electron and the radiation. It also leads to the dynamics of the electron as being governed (i) by the Lorentzian version of what in Euclidean space is Snell's law, (ii) by an eikonal equation with the corresponding index of refraction, (iii) by geodesics on a spacetime manifold with in-general non-zero curvature ("geometrization of the laser radiation"), (iv) by the spacetime version of Fermat's principle of least time, (v) by a Lorentzian stability criterion for the circumstance which in Euclidean space corresponds to the propagation of rays passing through a periodic wave guide of lenses which all have the same focal length. That criterion demands that the laser intensity satisfy $I_{aver}<.56 x (10,000 $angstrom / lambda$)^2 x 10^{18}$watts/cm^2$.
Exact Solution for a Two-Level Atom in Radiation Fields and the Freeman Resonances
Dong-Sheng Guo,Yong-Shi Wu,Linn Van Woerkom
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.023419
Abstract: Using techniques of complex analysis in an algebraic approach, we solve the wave equation for a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light field exactly. A closed-form expression for the quasi-energies is obtained, which shows that the Bloch-Siegert shift is always finite, regardless of whether the original or the shifted level spacing is an integral multiple of the driving frequency, $\omega$. We also find that the wave functions, though finite when the original level spacing is an integral multiple of $\omega$, become divergent when the intensity-dependent shifted energy spacing is an integral multiple of the photon energy. This result provides, for the first time in the literature, an ab-initio theoretical explanation for the occurrence of the Freeman resonances observed in above-threshold ionization experiments.
1 minute parity lifetime of a NbTiN Cooper-pair transistor
David J. van Woerkom,Attila Geresdi,Leo P. Kouwenhoven
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The parity modulation of the ground state of a superconducting island is a direct consequence of the presence of the Cooper pair condensate preferring an even number of charge carriers. The addition energy of an odd, unpaired quasiparticle equals to the superconducting gap, $\Delta$, suppressing single electron hopping in the low temperature limit. Controlling the quasiparticle occupation is of fundamental importance for superconducting qubits as single electron tunneling results in decoherence. In particular, topological quantum computation relies on the parity control and readout of Majorana bound states. Here we present parity modulation for the first time of a niobium titanite nitride (NbTiN) Cooper-pair transistor coupled to aluminium (Al) leads. We show that this circuit is compatible with the magnetic field requirement in the range of 100 mT of inducing topological superconductivity in spin-orbit coupled nanowires. Our observed parity lifetime exceeding 1 minute is several orders of magnitude higher than the required gate time of flux-controlled braiding of Majorana states. Our findings readily demonstrate that a NbTiN island can be parity-controlled and therefore provides a good platform for superconducting coherent circuits operating in a magnetic field.
Words that make pills easier to swallow: a communication typology to address practical and perceptual barriers to medication intake behavior
Linn AJ,van Weert JC,Schouten BC,Smit EG
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2012,
Abstract: Annemiek J Linn,1 Julia CM van Weert,1 Barbara C Schouten,1 Edith G Smit,1 Ad A van Bodegraven,2 Liset van Dijk31Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 3Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The NetherlandsPurpose: The barriers to patients’ successful medication intake behavior could be reduced through tailored communication about these barriers. The aim of this study is therefore (1) to develop a new communication typology to address these barriers to successful medication intake behavior, and (2) to examine the relationship between the use of the typology and the reduction of the barriers to successful medication intake behavior.Patients and methods: Based on a literature review, the practical and perceptual barriers to successful medication intake behavior typology (PPB-typology) was developed. The PPB-typology addresses four potential types of barriers that can be either practical (memory and daily routine barriers) or perceptual (concern and necessity barriers). The typology describes tailored communication strategies that are organized according to barriers and communication strategies that are organized according to provider and patient roles. Eighty consultations concerning first-time medication use between nurses and inflammatory bowel disease patients were videotaped. The verbal content of the consultations was analyzed using a coding system based on the PPB-typology. The Medication Understanding and Use Self-efficacy Scale and the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire Scale were used as indicators of patients’ barriers and correlated with PPB-related scores.Results: The results showed that nurses generally did not communicate with patients according to the typology. However, when they did, fewer barriers to successful medication intake behavior were identified. A significant association was found between nurses who encouraged question-asking behavior and memory barriers (r = 0.228, P = 0.042) and between nurses who summarized information (r = 0.254, P = 0.023) or used cartoons or pictures (r = 0.249, P = 0.026) and concern barriers. Moreover, a significant relationship between patients’ emotional cues about side effects and perceived concern barriers (r = 0.244, P = 0.029) was found as well.Conclusion: The PPB-typology provides communication recommendations that are designed to meet patients’ needs and assist providers in the promotion of successful medication intake behavior, and it can be a us
Realization of microwave quantum circuits using hybrid superconducting-semiconducting nanowire Josephson elements
G. de Lange,B. van Heck,A. Bruno,D. J. van Woerkom,A. Geresdi,S. R. Plissard,E. P. A. M. Bakkers,A. R. Akhmerov,L. DiCarlo
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.127002
Abstract: We report the realization of quantum microwave circuits using hybrid superconductor-semiconductor Josephson elements comprised of InAs nanowires contacted by NbTiN. Capacitively-shunted single elements behave as transmon qubits with electrically tunable transition frequencies. Two-element circuits also exhibit transmon-like behavior near zero applied flux, but behave as flux qubits at half the flux quantum, where non-sinusoidal current-phase relations in the elements produce a double-well Josephson potential. These hybrid Josephson elements are promising for applications requiring microwave superconducting circuits operating in magnetic field.
Towards high mobility InSb nanowire devices
?nder Gül,David J. van Woerkom,Ilse van Weperen,Diana Car,Sébastien R. Plissard,Erik P. A. M. Bakkers,Leo P. Kouwenhoven
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/26/21/215202
Abstract: We study the low-temperature electron mobility of InSb nanowires. We extract the mobility at 4.2 Kelvin by means of field effect transport measurements using a model consisting of a nanowire-transistor with contact resistances. This model enables an accurate extraction of device parameters, thereby allowing for a systematic study of the nanowire mobility. We identify factors affecting the mobility, and after optimization obtain a field effect mobility of $\sim2.5\mathbin{\times}10^4$ cm$^2$/Vs. We further demonstrate the reproducibility of these mobility values which are among the highest reported for nanowires. Our investigations indicate that the mobility is currently limited by adsorption of molecules to the nanowire surface and/or the substrate.
Multiple policies to enhance prescribing efficiency for established medicines in Europe with a particular focus on demand-side measures: findings and future implications
Brian Godman,Menno van Woerkom,Samantha Alvarez-Madrazo,Anna Bucsics,Kristina Garuoliene,Catherine Sermet,Kamila Malinowska,Corinne Zara,Lars L. Gustafsson
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2014.00106
Abstract: Introduction: The appreciable growth in pharmaceutical expenditure has resulted in multiple initiatives across Europe to lower generic prices and enhance their utilization. However, considerable variation in their use and prices.
Words that make pills easier to swallow: a communication typology to address practical and perceptual barriers to medication intake behavior
Linn AJ, van Weert JC, Schouten BC, Smit EG, Bodegraven AA, van Dijk L
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S36195
Abstract: rds that make pills easier to swallow: a communication typology to address practical and perceptual barriers to medication intake behavior Original Research (1313) Total Article Views Authors: Linn AJ, van Weert JC, Schouten BC, Smit EG, Bodegraven AA, van Dijk L Published Date December 2012 Volume 2012:6 Pages 871 - 885 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S36195 Received: 21 July 2012 Accepted: 29 August 2012 Published: 11 December 2012 Annemiek J Linn,1 Julia CM van Weert,1 Barbara C Schouten,1 Edith G Smit,1 Ad A van Bodegraven,2 Liset van Dijk3 1Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 3Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands Purpose: The barriers to patients’ successful medication intake behavior could be reduced through tailored communication about these barriers. The aim of this study is therefore (1) to develop a new communication typology to address these barriers to successful medication intake behavior, and (2) to examine the relationship between the use of the typology and the reduction of the barriers to successful medication intake behavior. Patients and methods: Based on a literature review, the practical and perceptual barriers to successful medication intake behavior typology (PPB-typology) was developed. The PPB-typology addresses four potential types of barriers that can be either practical (memory and daily routine barriers) or perceptual (concern and necessity barriers). The typology describes tailored communication strategies that are organized according to barriers and communication strategies that are organized according to provider and patient roles. Eighty consultations concerning first-time medication use between nurses and inflammatory bowel disease patients were videotaped. The verbal content of the consultations was analyzed using a coding system based on the PPB-typology. The Medication Understanding and Use Self-efficacy Scale and the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire Scale were used as indicators of patients’ barriers and correlated with PPB-related scores. Results: The results showed that nurses generally did not communicate with patients according to the typology. However, when they did, fewer barriers to successful medication intake behavior were identified. A significant association was found between nurses who encouraged question-asking behavior and memory barriers (r = 0.228, P = 0.042) and between nurses who summarized information (r = 0.254, P = 0.023) or used cartoons or pictures (r = 0.249, P = 0.026) and concern barriers. Moreover, a significant relationship between patients’ emotional cues about side effects and perceived concern barriers (r = 0.244, P = 0.029) was found as well. Conclusion: The PPB-typology provides communication recommendations that are designed to meet patients’ needs and assist providers in the promotion of successful m
Against All Odds: Genocidal Trauma Is Associated with Longer Life-Expectancy of the Survivors
Abraham Sagi-Schwartz, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, Shai Linn, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069179
Abstract: Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220), 4–20 years old when the World War II started (1939), immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group) or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust). Hazard of death – a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma – was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95%) = 0.910–0.960), suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10–15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95%) = 0.842–0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months) or 16–20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95%) = 0.782–0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months). We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and “Posttraumatic Growth” associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II.
Nanobatteries in redox-based resistive switches require extension of memristor theory
Ilia Valov,Eike Linn,Stefan Tappertzhofen,Sebastian Schmelzer,Jan van den Hurk,Florian Lentz,Rainer Waser
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2784
Abstract: Redox-based nanoionic resistive memory cells (ReRAMs) are one of the most promising emerging nano-devices for future information technology with applications for memory, logic and neuromorphic computing. Recently, the serendipitous discovery of the link between ReRAMs and memristors and memristive devices has further intensified the research in this field. Here we show on both a theoretical and an experimental level that nanoionic-type memristive elements are inherently controlled by non-equilibrium states resulting in a nanobattery. As a result the memristor theory must be extended to fit the observed non zerocrossing I-V characteristics. The initial electromotive force of the nanobattery depends on the chemistry and the transport properties of the materials system but can also be introduced during ReRAM cell operations. The emf has a strong impact on the dynamic behaviour of nanoscale memories, and thus, its control is one of the key factors for future device development and accurate modelling.
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