Abstract:
This paper describes a technique for noise reduction in synthetic aperture radar interferometry. The noisy interferogram is decomposed using undecimated wavelet transform and the coefficients are weighted. A novel method for computing the weights for each subband, based on an estimate of the relative noise content in them, is presented with a median filter used as the noise estimator. The proposed technique is not optimised for any specific signal or noise models. Results show that this technique provides an improvement of around 15% over the conventional boxcar filter in terms of estimated height error of a digital elevation model constructed from the filtered interferogram.

Abstract:
Zimbabwe’s economy declined between 2000 and 2009. This study detects the economic decline in different regions of Zimbabwe using nighttime light imagery from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS). We found a good correlation (coefficient = 0.7361) between Zimbabwe’s total nighttime light (TNL) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the period 1992 to 2009. Therefore, TNL was used as an indicator of regional economic conditions in Zimbabwe. Nighttime light imagery from 2000 and 2008 was compared at both national and regional scales for four types of regions. At the national scale, we found that nighttime light in more than half of the lit area decreased between 2000 and 2008. Moreover, within the four region types (inland mining towns, inland agricultural towns, border towns and cities) we determined that the mining and agricultural sectors experienced the most severe economic decline. Some of these findings were validated by economic survey data, proving that the nighttime light data is a potential data source for detecting the economic decline in Zimbabwe.

Abstract:
Because of all-weather working ability, sensitivity to biomass and moisture, and high spatial resolution, Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images can perfectly complement optical images for pasture monitoring. This paper aims to examine the potential of the integration of COnstellation of small Satellites for the Mediterranean basin Observasion (COSMO-SkyMed), Environmental Satellite Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT ASAR), and Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) radar signals at horizontally emitted and received polarization (HH) for pasture monitoring at the paddock scale in order to guide farmers for better management. The pasture site is selected, in Otway, Victoria, Australia. The biomass, water content of grass, and soil moisture over this site were analyzed with these three bands of SAR images, through linear relationship between SAR backscattering coefficient, and vegetation indices Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)), together with soil moisture index (MI). NDVI, NDWI, and MI are considered as proxy of pasture biomass, plant water content, and soil moisture, respectively, and computed from optical images and climate data. SAR backscattering coefficient and vegetation indices are computed within a grass zone, defined by classification with MODIS data. The grass condition and grazing activities for specific paddocks are detectable, based on SAR backscatter, with all three wavelengths datasets. Both temporal and spatial analysis results show that the X-band SAR has the highest correlation to the vegetation indices. However, its accuracy can be affected by wet weather due to its sensitivity to the water on leaves. The C-band HH backscattering coefficient showed moderate reliability to evaluate biomass and water content of grass, with limited influence from rainfall in the dry season. The L-band SAR is the less accurate one for grass biomass measurement due to stronger penetration.

Abstract:
By using the matrix decomposition and the reverse order law, we provide some new expressions of the Drazin inverse for any block matrix with rank constraints. 1. Introduction Let be a square complex matrix. The symbols and stand for the rank and the Moore-Penrose inverse of the matrix , respectively. The Drazin inverse of is the unique matrix satisfying where is the index of , the smallest nonnegative integer such that . We write . The Drazin inverse of a square matrix plays an important role in various fields like singular differential equations and singular difference equations, Markov chains, and iterative methods. The problem of finding explicit representations for the Drazin inverse of a complex block matrix, in terms of its blocks was posed by Campbell and Meyer [1, 2] in 1979. Many authors have considered this problem and have provided formulas for under some specific conditions [3–6]. In this paper, under rank constraints, we will present some new representations of which have not been discussed before. 2. Preliminary Lemma 2.1 (see [4]). Let and be square matrices of the same order. If , then where . If and , then . Lemma 2.2 (see [7]). Let where , are square matrices with , . Then where Lemma 2.3 (see [8]). Let , . Then if and only if , satisfy where , and with . Lemma 2.4 (see [9]). Let . Then 3. Main Results In this section, with rank equality constraints, we consider the Drazin inverse of block matrices. Let , where is invertible and is singular. It is easy to verify that can be decomposed as Let where . According to Lemma 2.3, we have the following theorem. Theorem 3.1. Let , where is invertible and is singular. If where , , , then has the following form: Proof. From Lemma 2.3 and (3.1), we know that if where , then Note that Let From Lemma 2.4, we have Note that , . Then we get Let , . Then can be rewritten as the following three matrix products: Since is nonsingular, then Thus, we have From the above equality and the condition (3.3), (3.5) is easily verified. Let , where , . It is easy to verify that the matrix can be decomposed as where is the generalized Schur complement of in . Let where . Then we have the following theorem. Theorem 3.2. If , and the matrices , satisfy then, where , . Proof. From Lemma 2.3 and (3.14), we get that if then Similar to the proof of Theorem 3.1, we derive that the rank condition (3.18) can be simplified as (3.16). Next, we will give the representation for . Let Since , , and , then . From Lemma 2.2, we get From Lemma 2.1 and the fact , it follows that Substituting in (3.19), the conclusion can be obtained.

Abstract:
The alienated labor theory that was proposed by Marx in “Economic & Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844” is the core of Marx’s alienation concept and is also the most component of the theory of Marx. The alienated labor theory of Marx was gradually mature in the process of sublating the traditional alienation concept and its formation and development mainly underwent three phases and finally turned to become a complete theory system.

Abstract:
The polarizations of Y(nS) (n=1,2,3) and prompt J/\psi and \psi(2S), as well as the differential cross section of the Y(nS), are measured in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, using a dimuon data sample collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb-1. The differential cross section is measured as a function of transverse momentum of Y(nS). The data show a transition from exponential to power-law behavior in the neighborhood of 20 GeV, and the power-law exponents for all three states are consistent. The polarization parameters \lambda\theta, \lambda\phi, and \lambda\theta\phi, as well as the frame-invariant quantity \lambda, are measured from the dimuon decay angular distributions in three different polarization frames. No evidence of large polarizations is seen in these kinematic regions, which extend much beyond those previously explored.