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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 78528 matches for " Linlin Chen "
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Retrospective Review for Prevalence and Survival in Metastatic Breast Cancer with Brain Metastasis in Two Patient Cohorts: One Collected 2000-2005 and the Second Collected 2006-2011  [PDF]
Laura Bourdeanu, Linlin Chen, Thehang Luu
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2017.85042
Abstract: Purpose: To determine whether the new treatments for breast cancer CNS metastases improve survival by comparing the survival between two cohorts: 2000-2005 and 2006-2011. Patients and Methods: A retrospective, comparative, correlational chart review was performed. Data from 172 women diagnosed with CNS metastases between 2000 and 2011, was evaluated. Results: Approximately 10% of patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2011 developed CNS metastases. The cohort was separated into four groups: luminal A (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2-), luminal B (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2+), HER2+ (ER -, PR-, HER2+) and TN (ER-, PR-, HER2-). There was a statistically significant difference in the overall survival between luminal A and luminal B (5.55 months vs. 15.3 months, respectively, p = 0.048). There was also a statistically significant difference in the overall survival between luminal B and TN (15.3 months vs. 7.49 months, respectively, p = 0.0181). There was no significant difference in overall survival between luminal B and HER2+ (15.3 months vs. and 10.98 months, respectively, p = 0.105), TN and HER2+ (7.49 months vs. 10.98 months, respectively, p = 0.514), and between luminal A and TN or HER2+ (5.55 months vs. 7.49 months, respectively, p = 0.428, or 5.55 months vs. 10.98 months, respectively, p = 0.491). Overall median survival of the patients in 2000-2005 and 2006-2011 were 6.64 months vs. 10.58 months, respectively (p = 0.0592). Conclusion: The results of our study showed that despite the new therapies there is little improvement in survival for brain metastasis in breast cancer.
An Inverse Eigenvalue Problem of Hermite-Hamilton Matrices in Structural Dynamic Model Updating
Linlin Zhao,Guoliang Chen
Mathematical Problems in Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/837527
Abstract: We first consider the following inverse eigenvalue problem: given ∈× and a diagonal matrix Λ∈×, find × Hermite-Hamilton matrices and such that =Λ. We then consider an optimal approximation problem: given × Hermitian matrices and , find a solution (,) of the above inverse problem such that ‖?‖2
Diversity Based on Entropy: A Novel Evaluation Criterion in Multi-objective Optimization Algorithm
Wang LinLin,Chen Yunfang
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: Quality assessment of Multi-objective Optimization algorithms has been a major concern in the scientific field during the last decades. The entropy metric is introduced and highlighted in computing the diversity of Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms. In this paper, the definition of the entropy metric and the approach of diversity measurement based on entropy are presented. This measurement is adopted to not only Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm but also Multi-objective Immune Algorithm. Besides, the key techniques of entropy metric, such as the appropriate principle of grid method, the reasonable parameter selection and the simplification of density function, are discussed and analyzed. Moreover, experimental results prove the validity and efficiency of the entropy metric. The computational effort of entropy increases at a linear rate with the number of points in the solution set, which is indeed superior to other quality indicators. Compared with Generational Distance, it is proved that the entropy metric have the capability of describing the diversity performance on a quantitative basis. Therefore, the entropy criterion can serve as a high-efficient diversity criterion of Multi-objective optimization algorithms.
Research on Service Pattern of Storing Local Government Information into University Libraries in Big Data Age  [PDF]
Linlin Zhang
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2016.91007
Abstract: Under the big data environment, this paper proposes the system building pattern and effective service strategy of storing government information into university libraries. The local government information can be better co-built and shared by establishing the guarantee institution for government information storage at university library and effectively integrating the government information resources, and providing diversified services of local government information to the public.
Investigation and Analysis on DRS Condition of Agricultural University Libraries in China  [PDF]
Linlin Zhang
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2016.42003
Abstract: 31 investigated higher agricultural college libraries all provide the reference consulting service. The service mode includes asynchronous reference consulting, synchronous reference consulting, synchronous and asynchronous reference consulting, joint reference consulting service and traditional reference consulting service. Service items include interlibrary borrowing and document delivery, reader training, special database, resource navigation and so on. But there are some problems to be solved.
Discussion on Subject Knowledge Service Pattern of Agricultural University Libraries  [PDF]
Linlin Zhang
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2016.41004
Abstract: Taking Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University as an example, the discipline service practice was explored from the aspects such as free network resources and tool use, subject navigation, subject librarians, information sharing space and information literacy education. The typical cases were provided; the optimization of utilization method of network resources was put forward; the subject theme navigation was developed; and the information sharing space of specific discipline and other working strategies were carried out. The experience and enlightenment of active service for subject construction, priority service for key subjects, subject service by lay and step and seizing of the opportunity of subject service were summarized, which developed ideas and provided reference to the establishment of deep subject services of general libraries of colleges and universities.
Revisiting adverse effects of cross-hybridization in Affymetrix gene expression data: do they matter for correlation analysis?
Lev Klebanov, Linlin Chen, Andrei Yakovlev
Biology Direct , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6150-2-28
Abstract: We have identified two serious flaws in the study by Okoniewski and Miller: (1) The data used in their paper are not amenable to correlation analysis; (2) The proposed simulation model is inadequate for studying the effects of cross-hybridization. Using two other data sets, we have shown that removing multiply targeted probe sets does not lead to a shift in the histogram of sample correlation coefficients towards smaller values. A more realistic approach to mathematical modeling of cross-hybridization demonstrates that this process is by far more complex than the simplistic model considered by the authors. A diversity of correlation effects (such as the induction of positive or negative correlations) caused by cross-hybridization can be expected in theory but there are natural limitations on the ability to provide quantitative insights into such effects due to the fact that they are not directly observable.The proposed stochastic model is instrumental in studying general regularities in hybridization interaction between probe sets in microarray data. As the problem stands now, there is no compelling reason to believe that multiple targeting causes a large-scale effect on the correlation structure of Affymetrix gene expression data. Our analysis suggests that the observed long-range correlations in microarray data are of a biological nature rather than a technological flaw.The paper was reviewed by I. K. Jordan, D. P. Gaile (nominated by E. Koonin), and W. Huber (nominated by S. Dudoit).Okoniewski and Miller [1] reported evidence they believe to be in favor of the idea that spurious positive correlations induced by the process of multiple targeting, i.e. the competition of multiple probe sets for a common transcript, represent a mass phenomenon in high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. They consider this phenomenon as a serious handicap to the inference on correlations in gene expression data analysis. In a way, their conclusion was in conflict with our re-analysi
Detecting Zimbabwe’s Decadal Economic Decline Using Nighttime Light Imagery
Xi Li,Linlin Ge,Xiaoling Chen
Remote Sensing , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/rs5094551
Abstract: Zimbabwe’s economy declined between 2000 and 2009. This study detects the economic decline in different regions of Zimbabwe using nighttime light imagery from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS). We found a good correlation (coefficient = 0.7361) between Zimbabwe’s total nighttime light (TNL) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the period 1992 to 2009. Therefore, TNL was used as an indicator of regional economic conditions in Zimbabwe. Nighttime light imagery from 2000 and 2008 was compared at both national and regional scales for four types of regions. At the national scale, we found that nighttime light in more than half of the lit area decreased between 2000 and 2008. Moreover, within the four region types (inland mining towns, inland agricultural towns, border towns and cities) we determined that the mining and agricultural sectors experienced the most severe economic decline. Some of these findings were validated by economic survey data, proving that the nighttime light data is a potential data source for detecting the economic decline in Zimbabwe.
Cilostazol suppresses LPS-stimulated maturation of DC2.4 cells through inhibition of NF-κB pathway
Tianhua Chen,Zhiliang Li,Qiang Fu,Linlin Chen
Journal of Applied Biomedicine , 2012,
Abstract: Cilostazol is a phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor that functions as a platelet aggregation inhibitor and is used for treating peripheral artery diseases and ischemic stroke. Dendritic cells (DCs) play an active role in the immunological processes related to atherosclerosis. Cilostazol has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects, but the effects of cilostazol on DC maturation remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cilostazol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced maturation of DCs. DC2.4 cells were treated with cilostazol for 12 h and subsequently stimulated with LPS to induce maturation. Cilostazol reduced the expression of maturation-associated markers induced by LPS, such as CD40, CD86, and MHCII, improved the endocytotic function, and decreased production of the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) of these cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of DC2.4 maturation by cilostazol, we investigated the effect of cilostazol on LPS-stimulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation. Our results indicated that cilostazol treatment decreased IkappaBalpha degradation and inhibited NF-kappaB p65 translocation, and the inhibitory effects of cilostazol were cAMP-independent. Therefore, inhibition of NF-kappaB by cilostazol might result in the suppression of DC maturation. In conclusion, cilostazol suppressed LPS-stimulated DC maturation, which might contribute to its anti-atherosclerosis effect.
Fabrication of PLGA coated silica nanorattle for controlling the drug release behavior
LinLin Li,YanQi Zhang,NanJing Hao,Dong Chen,FangQiong Tang
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-012-5246-4
Abstract: Silica nanorattle with hollow and mesoporous structure has been proven to be an excellent drug carrier. However, how to control the drug release from silica nanorattle is still a challenge. In this study, we designed two methods, in-situ polymerization method and water in oil in water (W/O/W) double emulsion method, to coat a nanosized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) layer onto the surface of silica nanorattle for controlling the drug release behavior. Hydrophobic antitumor drug docetaxel was loaded into the PLGA coated silica nanorattle (PLGA@SN). The drug release profile, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity on human liver cancer HepG2 cells were evaluated to prove that the PLGA layer plays an effective role in tuning the drug delivery.
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