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Two piezochromic fluorescent compounds are prepared by introducing thiomethyl substituents to the peripheralpositions of two related cyano oligo(p-phenylene vinylenes) (CN-OPV). The new derivatives, namely, 1,4-bis[2-cyano-2(4-thiomethylphenyl)ethenyl]benzene (TOPV1) and 1,4-bis(1-cyano-2-(4-thiomethylphenyl)ethenyl) benzene (TOPV2), are characterized by NMR, powder X-ray diffraction data (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) data. UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra are also measured. TOPV1 with the cyano groups farther away from the central aromatic ring is photoluminescent, and on application of pressure exhibits a more obvious color change and higher Stokes shift than those measured for TOPV2. We also observe piezochromic aggregation-induced emission (PAIE) for TOPV2, but TOPV1 does not exhibit any PAIE.
One critical issue for
routing in cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) is how to select a reliable
path for forwarding traffic. This is because mobility may cause radio links to
break frequently. The reliability of a path depends on the availability of
those links that constitutes the path. In this letter, we present a novel
approach to predict the probability of the availability of the link between two
cognitive radio nodes. The prediction is achieved by estimating the link
activation and spectrum activation probabilities. Our prediction is verified by
simulation and proved to be accurate. This study can provide reliability
assurance on dynamic routing for cognitive radio ad hoc networks.
We studied the changes
of macrophage populations in splenic mononuclear cells of experimental
autoimmune ence-phalomyelitis (EAE) mice treated with or without Fasudil. Phenotypic
analysis using flow cytometry showed that the levels of TLR4, CD11c and CD40
which represent the type 1 macrophage, were depressed in Fasudil-treated mice.
was observed the expressions of CD200 and CD14 which typify the type 2
macrophage were elevated in Fasudil-treated mice as compared to EAE mice. And
we also found that Fasudil at dose of 40 mg/kg alleviated the se-verity of symptom in EAE mice.
Based on the evidence that M1 macrophages are neurotoxic and M2 macrophages
promote a regenerative growth, indicating that polarization and shifting of
macrophages into M2 cells may also play key roles in treatment of EAE.