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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 335836 matches for " Linda S Smith "
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Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study
Linda S Smith
BMC Nursing , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-2-1
Abstract: Setting 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest USParticipants Convenience sample (N = 120) of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old.Instruments Temperatures (°F) measured at oral, skin (simultaneous), immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD) and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm) thermometers; 10 minute dwell times.Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9), 188 pounds (SD 55.3); 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and ? 1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F): oral (0.142 – 0.265), axilla (0.167 – 0.339), groin (0.037 – 0.321), and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111). Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device.Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered the gold standard, mercury-glass thermometers may no longer be available worldwide. Therefore, mercury-free, environmentally safe low-tech Galinstan-in-glass may be an appropriate replacement. This is especially important as we face new, internationally transmitted diseases.All health services need reliable, valid, readily available and accessible body temperature assessment devices. Obviously, body temperature assessments are key diagnostic indicators. Yet, the measurement of human body temperature has recently been cause for concern. Since Wunderlich's seminal work [1], mercury has been and continues to be the "gold standard" for temperature measure
Stellar Populations and Ages of M82 Super Star Clusters
John S. Gallagher, III,Linda J. Smith
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02352.x
Abstract: We present high signal-to-noise optical spectra of two luminous super star clusters in the starburst galaxy M82. The data for cluster F and the nearby, highly reddened cluster L were obtained with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at a resolution of 1.6A. The blue spectrum (3250-5540A) of cluster F shows features typical of mid-B stars. The red spectra (5730-8790A) of clusters F and L show the Ca II triplet and numerous F and G-type absorption features. Strong Ca II and Na I interstellar absorption lines arising in M82 are also detected, and the 6283A diffuse interstellar band appears to be present. The quality of the WHT spectra allows us to considerably improve previous age estimates for cluster F. By comparing the blue spectrum with theoretical model cluster spectra using the PEGASE spectral synthesis code (Fioc & Rocca-Volmerange 1997), we derive an age of 60+/-20 Myr. The strength of the Ca II triplet is also in accord with this age. Cluster L appears to have a similar age, although this is much less certain. The measured radial velocities for the two clusters differ substantially, indicating that they are located in different regions of the M82 disk. Cluster F appears to be deep in M82, slightly beyond the main starburst region while the highly obscured cluster L lies near the outer edges of the disk. We derive an absolute V magnitude of -16.5 for F indicating that it is an extremely massive cluster. The presence of such a luminous super star cluster suggests that the M82 starburst experienced an episode of intense star formation approximately 60 Myr ago.
Personality characteristics and health risk behaviors associated with current marijuana use among college students  [PDF]
Carla J. Berg, Taneisha S. Buchanan, Linda Grimsley, Jan Rodd, Daniel Smith
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2011.13015
Abstract: Objective: Marijuana is a prevalent substance used among young adults and has serious psychosocial and health-related consequences. Thus, identifying factors associated with marijuana use is critical. The current study aimed to examine personality factors and health risk behaviors associated with marijuana use. Methods: We administered an online survey to six colleges in the Southeast. Overall, we recruited 24,055 college students, yielding 4840 responses (20.1% response rate), with complete data from 4,401 students. Results: Current (past 30 day) marijuana use was reported by 13.8% of our sample. Users either reported infrequent use of marijuana (i.e., between 1 and 5 days; 52.3%) or very frequent use of marijuana (i.e. ,between 26 and 30 days; 18.2%). Mutlivariate analyses modeling correlates of marijuana use (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.323) indicated that significant factors included being younger (p < 0.001), being male (p = 0.002), being Black (p = 0.002), attending a four-year college (p = 0.005), being a nondaily (p < 0.001) or daily smoker (p < 0.001) vs. a nonsmoker, other tobacco use (p < 0.001), greater alcohol use (p < 0.001), greater perceived stress (p = 0.009), higher levels of sensation seeking (<0.001) and openness to experiences (p = 0.02), and lower levels of agreeableness (p = 0.01) and conscientiousness (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Identifying risk factors related to marijuana use is critical in developing interventions targeting both use and prevention. Moreover, understanding different college settings and the contextual factors associated with greater marijuana use is critical.
Molecular surveillance for drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in clinical and subclinical populations from three border regions of Burma/Myanmar: cross-sectional data and a systematic review of resistance studies
Brown Tyler,Smith Linda S,Oo Eh Kalu,Shawng Kum
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-333
Abstract: Background Confirmation of artemisinin-delayed parasite clearance in Plasmodium falciparum along the Thai-Myanmar border has inspired a global response to contain and monitor drug resistance to avert the disastrous consequences of a potential spread to Africa. However, resistance data from Myanmar are sparse, particularly from high-risk areas where limited health services and decades of displacement create conditions for resistance to spread. Subclinical infections may represent an important reservoir for resistance genes that confer a fitness disadvantage relative to wild-type alleles. This study estimates the prevalence of resistance genotypes in three previously unstudied remote populations in Myanmar and tests the a priori hypothesis that resistance gene prevalence would be higher among isolates collected from subclinical infections than isolates collected from febrile clinical patients. A systematic review of resistance studies is provided for context. Methods Community health workers in Karen and Kachin States and an area spanning the Indo-Myanmar border collected dried blood spots from 988 febrile clinical patients and 4,591 villagers with subclinical infection participating in routine prevalence surveys. Samples positive for P. falciparum 18 s ribosomal RNA by real-time PCR were genotyped for P. falciparum multidrug resistance protein (pfmdr1) copy number and the pfcrt K76T polymorphism using multiplex real-time PCR. Results Pfmdr1 copy number increase and the pfcrt K76 polymorphism were determined for 173 and 269 isolates, respectively. Mean pfmdr1 copy number was 1.2 (range: 0.7 to 3.7). Pfmdr1 copy number increase was present in 17.5%, 9.6% and 11.1% of isolates from Karen and Kachin States and the Indo-Myanmar border, respectively. Pfmdr1 amplification was more prevalent in subclinical isolates (20.3%) than clinical isolates (6.4%, odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.1 - 12.5). Pfcrt K76T prevalence ranged from 90-100%. Conclusions Community health workers can contribute to molecular surveillance of drug resistance in remote areas of Myanmar. Marginal and displaced populations under-represented among previous resistance investigations can and should be included in resistance surveillance efforts, particularly once genetic markers of artemisinin-delayed parasite clearance are identified. Subclinical infections may contribute to the epidemiology of drug resistance, but determination of gene amplification from desiccated filter samples requires further validation when DNA concentration is low.
Efficacy and Safety of Deracoxib for the Control of Postoperative Pain and Inflammation Associated with Dental Surgery in Dogs
Stephen E. Bienhoff,Eric S. Smith,Linda M. Roycroft,Elizabeth S. Roberts
ISRN Veterinary Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/593015
Abstract:
Hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative: a qualitative study
Linda M French, Mindy A Smith, Jodi S Holtrop, Margaret Holmes-Rovner
BMC Family Practice , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-7-61
Abstract: A questionnaire including structured and open-ended questions was administered in a family practice office waiting room from August through October 2003. Rationale for taking or not taking hormone therapy was specifically sought. Women 50–70 years old attending for office visits were invited to participate. Data were analyzed qualitatively and with descriptive statistics. Chart review provided medication use rates for the entire practice cohort of which the sample was a subset.Respondents (n = 127) were predominantly white and well educated, and were taking hormone therapy at a higher rate (38%) than the overall rate (26%) for women of the same age range in this practice. Belief patterns about hormone therapy were, in order of frequency, 'use is risky', 'vindication or prior beliefs', 'benefit to me outweighs risk', and 'unaware of new recommendations'. Twenty-eight out of 78 women continued hormones use after July 2002. Of 50 women who initially stopped hormone therapy after July 2002, 12 resumed use. Women who had stopped hormone therapy were a highly symptomatic group. Responses with emotional overtones such as worry, confusion, anger, and grief were common.Strategies for decision support about hormone therapy should explicitly take into account women's preferences about symptom relief and the trade-offs among relevant risks. Some women may need emotional support during transitions in hormone therapy use.A highly publicized reversal in recommendations for menopausal hormone therapy (HT) occurred in July 2002 when results were reported from the estrogen plus progestogen therapy (EPT) vs. placebo arm of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI)[1]. HT is no longer recommended for disease prevention, while use for treatment of menopausal symptoms for limited duration is still acceptable. This was an abrupt reversal in recommendations that represents a unique opportunity to study patient reactions to the change.A telephone survey conducted among staff model health maintena
Gender Inequality and Its Effects in Females Torture Survivors  [PDF]
Ibrahim Kira, Jeffery Ashby, Linda Lewandowski, Iris Smith, Lydia Odenat
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.34050
Abstract: The study explores the effects of gender discrimination GD as type III trauma in 359, (160 females and 199 males) torture survivors. Data includes measures of GD and other traumas, PTSD and cumulative trauma disorders CTD. GD found to decrease PTSD symptoms in males favoring mental health status of males, and increase CTD symptoms in females. GD mediated the effects of personal identity traumas on PTSD and CTD symptoms of psychosis/dissociation; executive function deficits, and suicidality. The re- sults highlight GD as type III trauma that contributes to the mental health differences between males and females.
Sizes and Shapes of Young Star Cluster Light Profiles in M83
Jenna E. Ryon,Nate Bastian,Angela Adamo,John S. Gallagher III,Iraklis S. Konstantopoulos,S?ren Larsen,Katherine Hollyhead,Esteban Silva-Villa,Linda J. Smith
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1282
Abstract: We measure the radii and two-dimensional light profiles of a large sample of young, massive star clusters in M83 using archival HST/WFC3 imaging of seven adjacent fields. We use GALFIT to fit the two-dimensional light profiles of the clusters, from which we find effective (half-light) radii, core radii, and slopes of the power-law (EFF) profile ($\eta$). We find lognormal distributions of effective radius and core radius, with medians of $\approx$2.5 pc and $\approx$1.3 pc, respectively. Our results provide strong evidence for a characteristic size of young, massive clusters. The average effective radius and core radius increase somewhat with cluster age. Little to no change in effective radius is observed with increasing galactocentric distance, except perhaps for clusters younger than 100 Myr. We find a shallow correlation between effective radius and mass for the full cluster sample, but a stronger correlation is present for clusters 200-300 Myr in age. Finally, the majority of the clusters are best fit by an EFF model with index $\eta\leq3.0$. There is no strong evidence for change in $\eta$ with cluster age, mass, or galactocentric distance. Our results suggest that clusters emerge from early evolution with similar radii and are not strongly affected by the tidal field of M83. Mass loss due to stellar evolution and/or GMC interactions appear to dominate cluster expansion in the age range we study.
Joint Attention without Gaze Following: Human Infants and Their Parents Coordinate Visual Attention to Objects through Eye-Hand Coordination
Chen Yu, Linda B. Smith
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079659
Abstract: The coordination of visual attention among social partners is central to many components of human behavior and human development. Previous research has focused on one pathway to the coordination of looking behavior by social partners, gaze following. The extant evidence shows that even very young infants follow the direction of another's gaze but they do so only in highly constrained spatial contexts because gaze direction is not a spatially precise cue as to the visual target and not easily used in spatially complex social interactions. Our findings, derived from the moment-to-moment tracking of eye gaze of one-year-olds and their parents as they actively played with toys, provide evidence for an alternative pathway, through the coordination of hands and eyes in goal-directed action. In goal-directed actions, the hands and eyes of the actor are tightly coordinated both temporally and spatially, and thus, in contexts including manual engagement with objects, hand movements and eye movements provide redundant information about where the eyes are looking. Our findings show that one-year-olds rarely look to the parent's face and eyes in these contexts but rather infants and parents coordinate looking behavior without gaze following by attending to objects held by the self or the social partner. This pathway, through eye-hand coupling, leads to coordinated joint switches in visual attention and to an overall high rate of looking at the same object at the same time, and may be the dominant pathway through which physically active toddlers align their looking behavior with a social partner.
The Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey; A cluster complex in NGC 2146
Angela Adamo,Linda J. Smith
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We present the Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS), an ongoing deep U-band imaging survey of nearby star-forming galaxies. Thanks to the information provided by the U band, together with archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical data, we are able to constrain reliable ages, masses, and extinctions of the cluster populations of these galaxies. We show some preliminary results from the study of one of the SHUCS galaxies, NGC 2146. Using the recovered cluster ages we try to understand the propagation of the star formation in one of the tidal streams where a ring-like cluster complex has been found. The Ruby Ring, so named due to its appearance, shows a clear ring-like distribution of star clusters around a central object. We find evidence of a spatial and temporal correlation between the central cluster and the clusters in the ring. The Ruby Ring is the product of an intense and localised burst of star formation, similar to the extended cluster complexes observed in M 51 and the Antennae, but more impressive because is quite isolated. We discuss the formation of the Ruby Ring in a "collect & collapse" framework. The predictions made by this model agree quite well with the estimated bubble radius and expansion velocity produced by the feedback from the central cluster, making the Ruby Ring an interesting case of triggered star formation.
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