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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3460 matches for " Linda Powers Tomasso "
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The Impact of Land Use Change for Greenhouse Gas Inventories and State-Level Climate Mediation Policy: A GIS Methodology Applied to Connecticut  [PDF]
Linda Powers Tomasso, Mark Leighton
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.517149
Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories conducted at state and regional levels serve to quantify long-term emissions trends and set benchmarks against which to evaluate the effectiveness of state government-mandated emissions reductions. GHG inventories which incompletely account for land use, land change, and forestry (LUCF) due to insufficient measurement tools discount the value of terrestrial carbon (C) sinks. In consequence, sink preservation is often omitted from regional land use planning. This paper proposes an accounting methodology which estimates foregone C sequestration derived LUCF change in the southern New England State of Connecticut (CT). The Natural Capital Project’s InVEST program provided a template for modeling C storage and sequestration for CT’s land class categories. LandSat mapping of long-term land cover patterns in CT conducted by CLEAR at the University of CT served as input data for InVEST computer modeling of C sequestration, both realized and foregone due to LUCF. The results showed that: 1) Land converted from high C density forestland to low density C land cover classes reduced the rate of C sequestration loss at 4.62 times the rate of forest reduction. Forest loss of 3.83% over twenty-five years was responsible for foregone C sequestration equivalent to 17.68% of total 2010 sequestration. 2) Accumulating C stocks pushed total annual sequestration from a 1985 baseline level of 866 MMTCO2 to 1116 MMTCO2 by 2010—a 250 MMTCO2 increment. 3) C sequestration from forest loss since 1985 would have yielded additional sequestration of 53.74 MMTCO2 by 2010. By 2002, foregone yield surpassed CT’s annual fossil fuel emissions, currently at 40 MMTCO2. 4) Preservation of forest C stocks over time becomes the determining factor for influencing biomass C sequestration levels. Deciduous forests have a preponderant influence on CO2 budgets. The ground-up methodology to quantify land-based C sequestration presented here demonstrates the influence of forest biomass in state-level C mitigation efforts useful to climate-oriented policy makers.
A stable aberrant immunophenotype characterizes nearly all cases of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in blood and can be used to monitor response to therapy
LaBaron T Washington, Yang O Huh, Linda C Powers, Madeleine Duvic, Dan Jones
BMC Clinical Pathology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6890-2-5
Abstract: We sought to assess the frequency of such abnormal antigen expression by flow cytometry in peripheral blood (PB) samples from patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS). We correlated presence of morphologically identifiable tumor cells on PB smear with the frequency of abnormalities in the level of expression of CD3, CD4, CD7, CD8 and CD26. We also examined the degree of stability of these abnormal findings in tumor cells over the course of disease. The flow cytometric findings in 100 PB samples from 44 patients, including 38 who had multiple sequential PB samples (2–8 samples each), were assessed.Abnormalities were seen in the expression level of one or more T-cell markers in 41 cases (93%) including CD3 in 34% of patients, CD4 in 54%, CD26 in 86% and CD 45 in 40% (10 cases tested). In all but 2 cases, the abnormal T-cell immunophenotype remained similar over the course of treatment and correlated with the relative numbers of tumor cells counted on PB smear.Using a standard T-cell panel, stable phenotypically aberrant T-cell populations representing the tumor are detected in the vast majority of involved PB samples in MF/SS and can be used to monitor response to therapy.Enumeration of peripheral blood (PB) leukemic cells in mycosis fungoides (MF)/Sézary syndrome (SS) can be difficult by morphological methods. This is due to difficulties in unequivocally distinguishing neoplastic cells from reactive lymphocytes on standard Wright-Giemsa-stained PB smears. Electron microscopic evaluation of blood samples is impractical for routine use. Therefore, most centers have relied on flow cytometric evaluation of such specimens.Flow cytometric abnormalities in MF/SS that have been correlated with the presence of tumor cells include increased populations of CD4-positive and/or CD7-negative T-cells. [1-3] We have recently shown that increases in CD4-positive, CD26-negative T-cell populations are highly associated with the presence of tumor cells in MF/SS [4].
Rawlinson’s Three Axes of Structural Analysis: A Useful Framework for a Foucauldian Discourse Analysis
Aporia : The Nursing Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Many ways of analyzing discourse based on the work of Michel Foucault have been developed. One way of organizing a discourse analysis is based on the work of Rawlinson.[1] An overview of the process of discourse analysis is presented and specific questions for each of the three parts of her proposed approach to discourse analysis are shown using the example of the discourse of advertising feminine hygiene products in women’s magazines.
What Hath Happened to 'the War-Prayer'
Ron Powers
Journal of Transnational American Studies , 2009,
An Analysis of Dual-Issue Final-Offer Arbitration
Brian Powers
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We discuss final-offer arbitration where two quantitative issues are in dispute and model it as a zero-sum game. Under reasonable assumptions we both derive a pure strategy pair and show that it is both a local equilibrium and furthermore that it is the unique global equilibrium.
Rational certificates of positivity on compact semialgebraic sets
Victoria Powers
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: Schm\"udgen's Theorem says that if a basic closed semialgebraic set K = {g_1 \geq 0, ..., g_s \geq 0} in R^n is compact, then any polynomial f which is strictly positive on K is in the preordering generated by the g_i's. Putinar's Theorem says that under a condition stronger than compactness, any f which is strictly positive on K is in the quadratic module generated by the g_i's. In this note we show that if the g_i's and the f have rational coefficients, then there is a representation of f in the preordering with sums of squares of polynomials over Q. We show that the same is true for Putinar's Theorem as long as we include among the generators a polynomial N - \sum X_i^2, N a natural number.
A Neurotoxic Phosphoform of Elk-1 Associates with Inclusions from Multiple Neurodegenerative Diseases
Anup Sharma,Linda M. Callahan,Jai-Yoon Sul,Tae Kyung Kim,Lindy Barrett,Minsun Kim,James M. Powers,Howard Federoff,James Eberwine
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009002
Abstract: Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a number of features including the formation of inclusions, early synaptic degeneration and the selective loss of neurons. Molecules serving as links between these shared features have yet to be identified. Identifying candidates within the diseased microenvironment will open up novel avenues for therapeutic intervention. The transcription factor Elk-1 resides within multiple brain areas both in nuclear and extranuclear neuronal compartments. Interestingly, its de novo expression within a single dendrite initiates neuronal death. Given this novel regionalized function, we assessed whether extranuclear Elk-1 and/or phospho-Elk-1 (pElk-1) protein might be associated with a spectrum of human neurodegenerative disease cases including Lewy body Disease (e.g. Parkinson's), Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's Disease. We first determined the importance of Elk-1 post-translational modifications on its ability to initiate regionalized cell death. We next screened human cases from three major neurodegenerative diseases to look for remarkable levels of Elk-1 and/or pElk-1 protein as well as their association with inclusions characteristic of these diseases. We compared our findings to age-matched control cases. We find that the ability of Elk-1 to initiate regionalized neuronal death depends on a specific phosphosite, T417. Furthermore, we find that T417+ Elk-1 uniquely associates with several types of inclusions present in cases of human Lewy body Disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's Disease. These results suggest a molecular link between the presence of inclusions and neuronal loss that is shared across a spectrum of neurodegenerative disease.
Cigarette Smoking Decreases Global MicroRNA Expression in Human Alveolar Macrophages
Joel W. Graff, Linda S. Powers, Anne M. Dickson, Jongkwang Kim, Anna C. Reisetter, Ihab H. Hassan, Karol Kremens, Thomas J. Gross, Mary E. Wilson, Martha M. Monick
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044066
Abstract: Human alveolar macrophages are critical components of the innate immune system. Cigarette smoking-induced changes in alveolar macrophage gene expression are linked to reduced resistance to pulmonary infections and to the development of emphysema/COPD. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) could control, in part, the unique messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles found in alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers. Activation of macrophages with different stimuli in vitro leads to a diverse range of M1 (inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) polarized phenotypes that are thought to mimic activated macrophages in distinct tissue environments. Microarray mRNA data indicated that smoking promoted an “inverse” M1 mRNA expression program, defined by decreased expression of M1-induced transcripts and increased expression of M1-repressed transcripts with few changes in M2-regulated transcripts. RT-PCR arrays identified altered expression of many miRNAs in alveolar macrophages of smokers and a decrease in global miRNA abundance. Stratification of human subjects suggested that the magnitude of the global decrease in miRNA abundance was associated with smoking history. We found that many of the miRNAs with reduced expression in alveolar macrophages of smokers were predicted to target mRNAs upregulated in alveolar macrophages of smokers. For example, miR-452 is predicted to target the transcript encoding MMP12, an important effector of smoking-related diseases. Experimental antagonism of miR-452 in differentiated monocytic cells resulted in increased expression of MMP12. The comprehensive mRNA and miRNA expression profiles described here provide insight into gene expression regulation that may underlie the adverse effects cigarette smoking has on alveolar macrophages.
Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection
Bethany A. Rhein?,Linda S. Powers,Kai Rogers?,Manu Anantpadma?,Brajesh K. Singh?,Yasuteru Sakurai?,Thomas Bair?,Catherine Miller-Hunt?,Patrick Sinn?,Robert A. Davey
PLOS Pathogens , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005263
Abstract: Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.
Are Asian Americans Disadvantaged by Residing More in the West? Migration, Region, and Earnings among Asian American Men  [PDF]
Isao Takei, Arthur Sakamoto, Daniel A. Powers
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.22021
Abstract: In studying labor market inequality of Asian Americans, the role of region and migration remain key factors that have not been much taken into account in the prior research. Using the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG), this study examines whether native-born and 1.5-generation Asian Americans are more likely than whites to reside in the West. We also investigate whether native-born and 1.5-generation Asian Americans have higher earnings than whites when broken down by West versus non-West. In addition to an OLS regression model, a switching regression model is used in order to account the possibility of sample selectivity between wages and region among men who are observed to reside in the West and in the non-West. This study can therefore ask, net of demographic and socioeconomic factors and selectivity, if there is no differential in earnings between Asian Americans and whites in the West, as well as in the non-West. The results of this study indicate that Asian Americans are more likely than whites to currently reside in the West, regardless of age category and nativity. This study also finds that Asian American men do not face a substantial disadvantage in the US labor market, net of demographic and class factors. Finally, switching regression models demonstrate that both younger native-born and younger 1.5-generation Asian Americans in the West and 1.5-generation Asian Americans in the non-West have significantly higher average earnings than whites, after further controlling for selectivity. This indicates that the estimated earnings differentials for younger Asian Americans and whites are obscured when using OLS, which does not account for selectivity. In regard to selectivity, there is a positive selection into living in the West, while the selection is negative living into the non-West.
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