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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4621 matches for " Linda Levin "
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Humoral Immune Responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii Antigens in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Young Children with Pneumocystis Pneumonia
Kpandja Djawe, Kieran R. Daly, Linda Levin, Heather J. Zar, Peter D. Walzer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082783
Abstract: Background Humoral immune responses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected children with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) are poorly understood. Methods Consecutive children hospitalized with acute pneumonia, tachypnea, and hypoxia in South Africa were investigated for PcP, which was diagnosed by real-time polymerase chain reaction on lower respiratory tract specimens. Serum antibody responses to recombinant fragments of the carboxyl terminus of Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (MsgC) were analyzed. Results 149 children were enrolled of whom 96 (64%) were HIV-infected. PcP occurred in 69 (72%) of HIV-infected and 14 (26%) of HIV-uninfected children. HIV-infected children with PcP had significantly decreased IgG antibodies to MsgC compared to HIV-infected patients without PcP, but had similar IgM antibodies. In contrast, HIV-uninfected children with PcP showed no change in IgG antibodies to MsgC, but had significantly increased IgM antibodies compared to HIV-uninfected children without PCP. Age was an independent predictor of high IgG antibodies, whereas PcP was a predictor of low IgG antibodies and high IgM antibodies. IgG and IgM antibody levels to the most closely related MsgC fragments were predictors of survival from PcP. Conclusions Young HIV-infected children with PcP have significantly impaired humoral immune responses to MsgC, whereas HIV-uninfected children with PcP can develop active humoral immune responses. The children also exhibit a complex relationship between specific host factors and antibody levels to MsgC fragments that may be related to survival from PcP.
Relation of DNA Methylation of 5′-CpG Island of ACSL3 to Transplacental Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Asthma
Frederica Perera, Wan-yee Tang, Julie Herbstman, Deliang Tang, Linda Levin, Rachel Miller, Shuk-mei Ho
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004488
Abstract: In a longitudinal cohort of ~700 children in New York City, the prevalence of asthma (>25%) is among the highest in the US. This high risk may in part be caused by transplacental exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but biomarkers informative of PAH-asthma relationships is lacking. We here hypothesized that epigenetic marks associated with transplacental PAH exposure and/or childhood asthma risk could be identified in fetal tissues. Mothers completed personal prenatal air monitoring for PAH exposure determination. Methylation sensitive restriction fingerprinting was used to analyze umbilical cord white blood cell (UCWBC) DNA of 20 cohort children. Over 30 DNA sequences were identified whose methylation status was dependent on the level of maternal PAH exposure. Six sequences were found to be homologous to known genes having one or more 5′-CpG island(s) (5′-CGI). Of these, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3) exhibited the highest concordance between the extent of methylation of its 5′-CGI in UCWBCs and the level of gene expression in matched fetal placental tissues in the initial 20 cohort children. ACSL3 was therefore chosen for further investigation in a larger sample of 56 cohort children. Methylation of the ACSL3 5′-CGI was found to be significantly associated with maternal airborne PAH exposure exceeding 2.41 ng/m3 (OR = 13.8; p<0.001; sensitivity = 75%; specificity = 82%) and with a parental report of asthma symptoms in children prior to age 5 (OR = 3.9; p<0.05). Thus, if validated, methylated ACSL3 5′CGI in UCWBC DNA may be a surrogate endpoint for transplacental PAH exposure and/or a potential biomarker for environmentally-related asthma. This exploratory report provides a new blueprint for the discovery of epigenetic biomarkers relevant to other exposure assessments and/or investigations of exposure-disease relationships in birth cohorts. The results support the emerging theory of early origins of later life disease development.
ARF6 Regulates Neuron Differentiation through Glucosylceramide Synthase
Lu Li, Marcus St?hlman, Mikael Rutberg, Liliana H?versen, Per Fogelstrand, Linda Andersson, Malin Levin, Jan Borén
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060118
Abstract: The small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) mediates endocytosis and has in addition been shown to regulate neuron differentiation. Here we investigated whether ARF6 promotes differentiation of Neuro-2a neuronal cells by modifying the cellular lipid composition. We showed that knockdown of ARF6 by siRNA in Neuro-2a cells increased neuronal outgrowth as expected. ARF6 knockdown also resulted in increased glucosylceramide levels and decreased sphingomyelin levels, but did not affect the levels of ceramide or phospholipids. We speculated that the ARF6 knockdown-induced increase in glucosylceramide was caused by an effect on glucosylceramide synthase and, in agreement, showed that ARF6 knockdown increased the mRNA levels and activity of glucosylceramide synthase. Finally, we showed that incubation of Neuro-2a cells with the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morph?olino-1-propanol(D-PDMP) normalized the increased neuronal outgrowth induced by ARF6 knockdown. Our results thus show that ARF6 regulates neuronal differentiation through an effect on glucosylceramide synthase and glucosylceramide levels.
Creative Expression: Effectiveness of a Weekly Craft Group with Women Who Have Experienced Trauma  [PDF]
Linda Garner
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.52011
Abstract: Creativity interventions have been shown to positively influence psychological and emotional health indicators. Nurses can play an important role in the development and implementation of interventions designed to counter the longer-term emotional and psychological consequences of trauma. The purpose of this study was to explore how participation in a nurse-facilitated weekly craft group may influence anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and self-confidence among women who have emotional and physical experienced trauma. A pre/post visual analog scale was used during a 7-week intervention to measure changes in anxiety, depression, stress, self-esteem and self-confidence among a convenience sample of adult female trauma survivors (n = 33). A paired sample t test was used to evaluate the intervention with significance set at p = 0.05. Participant observation and field notes were used for qualitative data generation. Significant reductions were noted in anxiety, depression, and stress along with significant increases in self-esteem and self-confidence. Cohen’s d statistic indicated a large effect size for anxiety (0.72) and stress (0.69). Moderate effect size was determined for self-confidence (0.36), depression (0.41), and self-esteem (0.52). Emergent qualitative themes included: creative expression improved confidence to sooth the self, safe spaces fostered creativity, a sense of accomplishment was stimulated through creative activities, and creative expression groups provided opportunities for positive affirmation. Offered as a complementary intervention, nurse-facilitated creative expression groups can support continued healing long after traditional support services have been exhausted. It is important for nurses to pursue a greater understanding of the art of nursing and the important contribution of creativity when used as a nursing intervention with trauma survivors.
Residual Effects from Occupational Mercury Exposure Include a Proposed Mercury Tremor Biomarker or “Fingerprint”  [PDF]
Linda Jones
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.810068
Abstract: The study investigated residual effects of high levels of occupational mercury exposure, 30 years after a cohort of women worked in public service dentistry. They had all used copper amalgam in a pellet form that required heating and handling, and silver amalgam before the encapsulated form was available. Mercury handling practices changed in the mid-1970 when the workforce was urine tested and mercury poisoning became apparent. The aim was to compare control group and exposed group scores on tasks from a neurobehavioural test battery; plus survey results from a composite health, work history and environmental influences survey. The findings showed that the exposed and control groups were equivalent not only on those variables that one would want to be matched (age, alcohol consumption), but also on many of the cognitive and psychomotor test scores. The present paper focuses on psychomotor skill and tremor patterns. Tremor patterns were seen as generating new evidence of long term effects of the historic mercury insult. Data also suggest that there may be a distinctive mercury “fingerprint”, in samples of sinusoidal waveforms that may have potential as a non-invasive sub-clinical biomarker for adverse effects of mercury exposure, in screening or workplace monitoring.
The Constructionist Learning Approach in the Digital Age  [PDF]
Ilya Levin, Dina Tsybulsky
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.815169
Abstract: The article deals with the evolution of the constructionist learning approach from the beginning of the era of information technologies through the digital age. The evolution of constructionism is demonstrated in connection with two associated processes: changes in the human worldview related to the digital shift, and the corresponding transformations in human society. The study examines the evolution of basic constructionist ideas: 1) “microworlds” as “incubators of knowledge”; 2) a child as “the architect of his [or her] intelligent structures”; 3) the computer as “a machine that brings back a natural character to learning”; 4) coding as a “universal learning activity” that enables the study of fundamental scientific ideas. The constructionist ideas are analyzed in the context of today’s digital reality. The main contribution of the study is formulating the changes in classical constructionism as transformations that correspond to worldview components: activating the perception of self; democratization of the mutual interactions with others; virtualization of the conception of reality; integration the subject and object in their interaction with reality.
Serum Antibody Levels to the Pneumocystis jirovecii Major Surface Glycoprotein in the Diagnosis of P. jirovecii Pneumonia in HIV+ Patients
Kpandja Djawe,Laurence Huang,Kieran R. Daly,Linda Levin,Judy Koch,Alexandra Schwartzman,Serena Fong,Brenna Roth,Anuradha Subramanian,Katherine Grieco,Leah Jarlsberg,Peter D. Walzer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014259
Abstract: Pneumocystis jirovecii remains an important cause of fatal pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia or PcP) in HIV+ patients and other immunocompromised hosts. Despite many previous attempts, a clinically useful serologic test for P. jirovecii infection has never been developed.
Cholesteryl Esters Accumulate in the Heart in a Porcine Model of Ischemia and Reperfusion
Christina Drevinge, Lars O. Karlsson, Marcus St?hlman, Thomas Larsson, Jeanna Perman Sundelin, Lars Grip, Linda Andersson, Jan Borén, Malin C. Levin
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061942
Abstract: Myocardial ischemia is associated with intracellular accumulation of lipids and increased depots of myocardial lipids are linked to decreased heart function. Despite investigations in cell culture and animal models, there is little data available on where in the heart the lipids accumulate after myocardial ischemia and which lipid species that accumulate. The aim of this study was to investigate derangements of lipid metabolism that are associated with myocardial ischemia in a porcine model of ischemia and reperfusion. The large pig heart enables the separation of the infarct area with irreversible injury from the area at risk with reversible injury and the unaffected control area. The surviving myocardium bordering the infarct is exposed to mild ischemia and is stressed, but remains viable. We found that cholesteryl esters accumulated in the infarct area as well as in the bordering myocardium. In addition, we found that expression of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was up-regulated, suggesting that choleteryl ester uptake is mediated via these receptors. Furthermore, we found increased ceramide accumulation, inflammation and endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress in the infarcted area of the pig heart. In addition, we found increased levels of inflammation and ER stress in the myocardium bordering the infarct area. Our results indicate that lipid accumulation in the heart is one of the metabolic derangements remaining after ischemia, even in the myocardium bordering the infarct area. Normalizing lipid levels in the myocardium after ischemia would likely improve myocardial function and should therefore be considered as a target for treatment.
Natural Ventilation for Prevention of Airborne Contagion: Conclusions Overgeneralized
Hal Levin
PLOS Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040189
Anti-Interferon Auto-Antibodies in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 1
Michael Levin
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030292
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