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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5122 matches for " Linda Bradley "
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北京大学学报(医学版) , 2006,
Regulation of Antigen-Experienced T Cells: Lessons from the Quintessential Memory Marker CD44
Bas J. G. Baaten,Linda M. Bradley
Frontiers in Immunology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2012.00023
Abstract: Despite the widespread use of the cell-surface receptor CD44 as a marker for antigen (Ag)-experienced, effector and memory T cells, surprisingly little is known regarding its function on these cells. The best-established function of CD44 is the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. As such, the interactions of CD44, primarily with its major ligand, the extracellular matrix (ECM) component hyaluronic acid (HA), can be crucial for the recruitment and function of effector and memory T cells into/within inflamed tissues. However, little is known about the signaling events following engagement of CD44 on T cells and how cooperative interactions of CD44 with other surface receptors affect T cell responses. Recent evidence suggests that the CD44 signaling pathway(s) may be shared with those of other adhesion receptors, and that these provide contextual signals at different anatomical sites to ensure the correct T cell effector responses. Furthermore, CD44 ligation may augment T cell activation after Ag encounter and promote T cell survival, as well as contribute to regulation of the contraction phase of an immune response and the maintenance of tolerance. Once the memory phase is established, CD44 may have a role in ensuring the functional fitness of memory T cells. Thus, the summation of potential signals after CD44 ligation on T cells highlights that migration and adhesion to the ECM can critically impact the development and homeostasis of memory T cells, and may differentially affect subsets of T cells. These aspects of CD44 biology on T cells and how they might be modulated for translational purposes are discussed.
Analysis of Canis mitochondrial DNA demonstrates high concordance between the control region and ATPase genes
Linda Y Rutledge, Brent R Patterson, Bradley N White
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-215
Abstract: We found high concordance across analyses between the mtDNA regions studied. Both had a high percentage of variable sites (CR = 14.6%; ATP = 9.7%) and both phylogenies clustered eastern wolf haplotypes monophyletically within a North American evolved lineage apart from coyotes. Divergence estimates suggest the putative red wolf sequence is more closely related to coyotes (DxyCR = 0.01982 ± 0.00494 SD; DxyATP = 0.00332 ± 0.00097 SD) than the eastern wolf sequences (DxyCR = 0.03047 ± 0.00664 SD; DxyATP = 0.00931 ± 0.00205 SD). Neutrality tests on both genes were indicative of the population expansion of coyotes across eastern North America, and dN/dS ratios suggest a possible role for purifying selection in the evolution of North American lineages. dN/dS ratios were higher in European evolved lineages from northern climates compared to North American evolved lineages from temperate regions, but these differences were not statistically significant.These results demonstrate high concordance between coding and non-coding regions of mtDNA, and provide further evidence that the eastern wolf possessed distinct mtDNA lineages prior to recent coyote introgression. Purifying selection may have influenced North American evolved Canis lineages, but detection of adaptive selection in response to climate is limited by the power of current statistical tests. Increased sampling and development of alternative analytical tools will be necessary to disentangle demographic history from processes of natural selection.Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been widely used in phylogenetic studies aimed at answering questions related to ecology and evolution. Its maternal inheritance, lack of recombination, high copy number, variable substitution rates across regions, high mutation rate compared to nuclear DNA, and role in energy production [1] make it an attractive genome for research that aims to understand species relationships, evolutionary history, and demographic patterns within both contempo
Language learning in a wiki: Student contributions in a web based learning environment
Linda Bradley,Berner Lindstr?m,Hans Rystedt,Sylvi Vigmo
Themes in Science and Technology Education , 2010,
Abstract: Emerging social writing platforms offer possibilities for language learners to collaboratearound joint assignments. One such environment is the wiki, generally hosting two prominentmodes of usage, web pages and discussion forums. This study investigates softwareengineering students’ use of a wiki as an integrated tool within the frames of a languagecourse. The purpose of the case study was to investigate the student interaction in a studentdriven design setting and what the implications are for language learning in such anenvironment. The findings show that the two modes of interaction host primarily three typesof activity, contributing and writing together, evaluating and peer reviewing, and arguing anddiscussing. These three activities convey different ways of collaborating and sharing textonline. Once a group had chosen a mode for their collaboration, they tend to stay with itthroughout their work.
Polio eradication initiative in Africa: influence on other infectious disease surveillance development
Peter Nsubuga, Sharon McDonnell, Bradley Perkins, Roland Sutter, Linda Quick, Mark White, Stephen Cochi, Mac Otten
BMC Public Health , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-2-27
Abstract: During October 1999-March 2000, we developed and administered a survey questionnaire to at least one key informant from the 38 countries that regularly report on polio activities to WHO. The key informants included WHO-AFRO staff assigned to the countries and Ministry of Health personnel.We obtained responses from 32 (84%) of the 38 countries. Thirty-one (97%) of the 32 countries had designated surveillance officers for AFP surveillance, and 25 (78%) used the AFP resources for the surveillance and response to other infectious diseases. In 28 (87%) countries, AFP program staff combined detection for AFP and other infectious diseases. Fourteen countries (44%) had used the AFP laboratory specimen transportation system to transport specimens to confirm other infectious disease outbreaks. The majority of the countries that performed AFP surveillance adequately (i.e., non polio AFP rate = 1/100,000 children aged <15 years) in 1999 had added 1–5 diseases to their AFP surveillance program.Despite concerns regarding the targeted nature of AFP surveillance, it is partially integrated into existing surveillance and response systems in multiple African countries. Resources provided for polio eradication should be used to improve surveillance for and response to other priority infectious diseases in Africa.The polio-eradication initiative has led to the largest influx of public health resources into Africa since the smallpox-eradication campaign, comprising both human resources and infrastructure investment [1,2]. Public health professionals have debated the merits and demerits of the polio-eradication initiative, regarding the priorities of developing countries. Supporters of the initiative have reported on the high benefit-cost ratio of eradication [1,2]. Among the demerits cited is that polio has a lower public health importance as compared to other infectious diseases – many of them epidemic prone – in poor countries [1-3]. An investigation of the impact of the polio-eradica
Novel Finding of Coronary Ectasia in a Case of Acute Rheumatic Fever
Thomas Weiler,Anjali Chelliah,Linda Bradley-Tiernan,E. Anne Greene
Case Reports in Pediatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/674174
Abstract: A 10-year-old boy presented to his pediatrician with acute fever, rash, and polyarthritis. Laboratory studies revealed elevated inflammatory markers and positive throat culture. Echocardiogram demonstrated panvalvular insufficiency consistent with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and coronary artery ectasia. This latter finding, typically associated with Kawasaki disease, has not been previously reported in ARF. 1. Introduction Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) results from a cellular and humoral autoimmune response after infection by Streptococcus pyogenes [1]. Clinically diagnosed using the Jones criteria (Table 1) [2, 3], it typically occurs about three weeks after group A streptococcus infection. Carditis involving the valves, myocardium, and/or pericardium occurs in 30–70% of patients with ARF [4]. Table 1: Clinical manifestations of acute rheumatic fever versus Kawasaki disease found in the reported case (noted with √ symbol). The current literature provides examples of coronary vasculitis in the acute phase of ARF as well as more indolent inflammation associated with rheumatic heart disease [5], but no cases of coronary ectasia have been documented in ARF. Our report highlights this unusual finding and the importance of accurate diagnosis and long-term treatment. 2. Patient Presentation A 10-year-old previously healthy boy presented to his pediatrician with a four-day history of sore throat and daily fever. He also reported two days of erythematous rash over his extremities and mild abdominal pain. Rapid strep antigen test was negative, and his family was advised to continue supportive care. When throat culture became positive for group A streptococcus, he was started on amoxicillin, but after one day of antibiotics he developed pain, erythema, and edema in his right ankle, knee, and subsequently in his left elbow. The family discontinued treatment due to concern for drug reaction and returned to their pediatrician. Since the onset of fever, he reported no conjunctivitis, mucous membrane changes, or swelling of his hands or feet. Laboratory studies two days after throat culture included a CBC (WBC 14,000/μL, hemoglobin 10.7?gm/dL, and platelets 368,000/μL) and an ESR elevated at 115?mm/hour (normal: 0–15). ANA was negative. At this time, he was referred to a pediatric cardiologist for evaluation for ARF. In the cardiology clinic, the patient was found to be ill-appearing with diffuse joint pain. Temperature was 38.4°C, HR 65, RR 15, and BP 112/53. Skin was unremarkable with resolution of previous rash. Lungs were clear. On cardiac exam, he had normal
Is It Possible to Revitalize a Dying Language? An Examination of Attempts to Halt the Decline of Irish  [PDF]
Michael Bradley
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.44047
Abstract: This paper evaluates the attempts to revitalize the indigenous language of Ireland. It examines how the number of native Irish speakers declined under British rule, and how this trend continued even after independence, when Irish was declared the country’s official language. Successive Irish governments have used two main strategies to reverse language shift. The first was to protect the small Irish speaking areas in the west of the country, the Gaeltacht. The second was to rely on schools elsewhere to produce new generations of fluent Irish speakers. By the 1970s it was apparent that neither policy was working. However since then, somewhat improbably, an increasing number of people have begun to use Irish, both inside and outside the Gaeltacht. This paper examines whether this revival constitutes reverse language shift. In particular, it asks to what extent Irish is now being passed on as a mother tongue to a new generation of children.
Creative Expression: Effectiveness of a Weekly Craft Group with Women Who Have Experienced Trauma  [PDF]
Linda Garner
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.52011
Abstract: Creativity interventions have been shown to positively influence psychological and emotional health indicators. Nurses can play an important role in the development and implementation of interventions designed to counter the longer-term emotional and psychological consequences of trauma. The purpose of this study was to explore how participation in a nurse-facilitated weekly craft group may influence anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and self-confidence among women who have emotional and physical experienced trauma. A pre/post visual analog scale was used during a 7-week intervention to measure changes in anxiety, depression, stress, self-esteem and self-confidence among a convenience sample of adult female trauma survivors (n = 33). A paired sample t test was used to evaluate the intervention with significance set at p = 0.05. Participant observation and field notes were used for qualitative data generation. Significant reductions were noted in anxiety, depression, and stress along with significant increases in self-esteem and self-confidence. Cohen’s d statistic indicated a large effect size for anxiety (0.72) and stress (0.69). Moderate effect size was determined for self-confidence (0.36), depression (0.41), and self-esteem (0.52). Emergent qualitative themes included: creative expression improved confidence to sooth the self, safe spaces fostered creativity, a sense of accomplishment was stimulated through creative activities, and creative expression groups provided opportunities for positive affirmation. Offered as a complementary intervention, nurse-facilitated creative expression groups can support continued healing long after traditional support services have been exhausted. It is important for nurses to pursue a greater understanding of the art of nursing and the important contribution of creativity when used as a nursing intervention with trauma survivors.
Residual Effects from Occupational Mercury Exposure Include a Proposed Mercury Tremor Biomarker or “Fingerprint”  [PDF]
Linda Jones
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.810068
Abstract: The study investigated residual effects of high levels of occupational mercury exposure, 30 years after a cohort of women worked in public service dentistry. They had all used copper amalgam in a pellet form that required heating and handling, and silver amalgam before the encapsulated form was available. Mercury handling practices changed in the mid-1970 when the workforce was urine tested and mercury poisoning became apparent. The aim was to compare control group and exposed group scores on tasks from a neurobehavioural test battery; plus survey results from a composite health, work history and environmental influences survey. The findings showed that the exposed and control groups were equivalent not only on those variables that one would want to be matched (age, alcohol consumption), but also on many of the cognitive and psychomotor test scores. The present paper focuses on psychomotor skill and tremor patterns. Tremor patterns were seen as generating new evidence of long term effects of the historic mercury insult. Data also suggest that there may be a distinctive mercury “fingerprint”, in samples of sinusoidal waveforms that may have potential as a non-invasive sub-clinical biomarker for adverse effects of mercury exposure, in screening or workplace monitoring.
Matrix Metalloprotease 9 Mediates Neutrophil Migration into the Airways in Response to Influenza Virus-Induced Toll-Like Receptor Signaling
Linda M. Bradley equal contributor,Mia F. Douglass equal contributor,Dhrubamitra Chatterjee,Shizuo Akira,Bas J. G. Baaten
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002641
Abstract: The early inflammatory response to influenza virus infection contributes to severe lung disease and continues to pose a serious threat to human health. The mechanisms by which neutrophils gain entry to the respiratory tract and their role during pathogenesis remain unclear. Here, we report that neutrophils significantly contributed to morbidity in a pathological mouse model of influenza virus infection. Using extensive immunohistochemistry, bone marrow transfers, and depletion studies, we identified neutrophils as the predominant pulmonary cellular source of the gelatinase matrix metalloprotease (MMP) 9, which is capable of digesting the extracellular matrix. Furthermore, infection of MMP9-deficient mice showed that MMP9 was functionally required for neutrophil migration and control of viral replication in the respiratory tract. Although MMP9 release was toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling-dependent, MyD88-mediated signals in non-hematopoietic cells, rather than neutrophil TLRs themselves, were important for neutrophil migration. These results were extended using multiplex analyses of inflammatory mediators to show that neutrophil chemotactic factor, CCL3, and TNFα were reduced in the Myd88?/? airways. Furthermore, TNFα induced MMP9 secretion by neutrophils and blocking TNFα in vivo reduced neutrophil recruitment after infection. Innate recognition of influenza virus therefore provides the mechanisms to induce recruitment of neutrophils through chemokines and to enable their motility within the tissue via MMP9-mediated cleavage of the basement membrane. Our results demonstrate a previously unknown contribution of MMP9 to influenza virus pathogenesis by mediating excessive neutrophil migration into the respiratory tract in response to viral replication that could be exploited for therapeutic purposes.
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