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Currently, genome-wide association studies have been proved
to be a powerful approach to identify risk loci. However, the molecular
regulatory mechanisms of complex diseases are still not clearly understood. It
is therefore important to consider the interplay between genetic factors and
biological networks in elucidating the mechanisms of complex disease
pathogenesis. In this paper, we first conducted a genome-wide association
analysis by using the SNP genotype data and phenotype data provided by Genetic
Analysis Workshop 17, in order to filter significant SNPs associated with the diseases. Second,
we conducted a bioinformatics analysis of gene-phenotype association matrix to identify
gene modules (biclusters). Third, we performed a KEGG enrichment test of genes
involved in biclusters to find evidence to support their functional consensus.
This method can be used for better understanding complex diseases.
The purpose of this study is to calculate the ratios
of fetal limb bone to nasal bone length (NBL) obtained by transabdominal ultrasound
between 19 and 28 weeks of gestation. Cross-sectional data were obtained from
1408 women with singleton pregnancies who underwent an advanced prenatal
ultrasound examination from August 2006 to September 2008. The single
measurement plane of fetal limb bones was on the longest section of
each structure with appropriate image magnification. To assess repeatability of
the intraobserver, two repeated measurements were obtained in 44 fetuses. The
ratio of fetuses with biparietal diameter (BPD)/NBL was compared with those of
fetal limb bones/NBL. The mean ratio was found between fetal NBL measurements
and BPD (7.240), humerus length (HL) (4.807), radius length (RL) (4.157), ulna
length (UL) (4.502), femur length (FL) (5.131), tibia length (TL) (4.528), and
fibula length (FiL) (4.507). The reference ranges of fetal long bone length/NBL
ratios for the second trimester was established by transabdominal sonography.
There were no significant increases in these ratios with gestational age,
especially the HL/NBL ratio.
Currently, the most
important issue with respect to financial institutions is how to motivate staff
without providing perverse incentives. For instance, with the implementation of
a proper incentive system, staff will be motivated via their self-interest to
create financial innovations to better price and hedge risk. However, this
system must also be designed with checks and balances in mind because it is
also very easy to institute a system in which perverse incentives drive individual
behavior. In an effort to modernize the Chinese financial system, it is
important to understand both the underlying mechanism by which people respond
to incentives to better design compensation schemes that maximize innovation.
Utilizing game theory, it is possible to analyze the interplay between these
two drivers of human action. From this analysis it becomes possible to design
better ways of compensating staff to curb undesirable behavior by those in the
financial industry while still promoting innovation within the field.