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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 38047 matches for " Lin SW "
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Lyapunov Stability of Quasilinear Implicit Dynamic Equations on Time Scales
Du NH,Liem NC,Chyan CJ,Lin SW
Journal of Inequalities and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: This paper studies the stability of the solution for a class of quasilinear implicit dynamic equations on time scales of the form . We deal with an index concept to study the solvability and use Lyapunov functions as a tool to approach the stability problem.
Genetically altered mice and cancer research: effects of the other 99.999% of the genome and other variables upon phenotype
SW Barthold
Breast Cancer Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/bcr667
Abstract:
Effects of prolonged UV-B exposure in plants
SW Mpoloka
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Over the past few decades, there has been a depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer due to emissions of halogen-containing compounds of anthropogenic origin. This has resulted in a concomitant increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation. High levels of UV-B radiation are responsible for multiple biologically harmful effects in both plants and animals. In plants, these effects include DNA damage, which often causes heritable mutations affecting various physiological processes, including the photosynthetic apparatus, protein destruction and signal transduction via UV-B photoreceptors. High UV-B levels introduce a number of different lesions, predominantly cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone products [(6-4) PPs] in the genome. These could adversely affect plant growth, development and morphology, especially the productivity of sensitive crop species. This paper reviews the genetic effects of long-term UV-B exposure in plants.
Novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: a focus on the older patient
Yates SW
International Journal of General Medicine , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S39379
Abstract: vel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: a focus on the older patient Review (18) Total Article Views Authors: Yates SW Published Date March 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 167 - 180 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S39379 Received: 20 October 2012 Accepted: 03 December 2012 Published: 21 March 2013 Scott W Yates Center for Executive Medicine, Plano, TX, USA Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia that is associated with an increased risk of stroke, particularly in the elderly. Traditionally, a vitamin K antagonist such as warfarin is prescribed for stroke prevention. Warfarin is effective at lowering stroke risk but has several limitations due to food restrictions, drug interactions, and a narrow therapeutic window. Various novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are available or under development to provide alternative treatment options. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of three NOACs (dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, and apixaban) in addition to warfarin and aspirin, for prevention of stroke in patients with AF, focusing on the elderly population. Results of clinical trials demonstrate that the efficacy of NOACs for stroke prevention in patients with AF is as good as or better than that of warfarin. The NOACs are also associated with an equivalent or lower risk of bleeding. Regardless of the medication chosen, older patients with AF must be treated cautiously due to an increased risk of stroke and bleeding, as well as potential challenges related to drug interactions and monitoring requirements. NOACs may be suitable alternatives to warfarin for stroke prevention in older patients due to several advantages, including a faster onset of action, few drug or food interactions, and no requirement for regular monitoring. However, dose adjustments may be required for certain patients, such as those with severe renal impairment or in the setting of drug interactions.
Novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: a focus on the older patient
Yates SW
International Journal of General Medicine , 2013,
Abstract: Scott W YatesCenter for Executive Medicine, Plano, TX, USAAbstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia that is associated with an increased risk of stroke, particularly in the elderly. Traditionally, a vitamin K antagonist such as warfarin is prescribed for stroke prevention. Warfarin is effective at lowering stroke risk but has several limitations due to food restrictions, drug interactions, and a narrow therapeutic window. Various novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are available or under development to provide alternative treatment options. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of three NOACs (dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, and apixaban) in addition to warfarin and aspirin, for prevention of stroke in patients with AF, focusing on the elderly population. Results of clinical trials demonstrate that the efficacy of NOACs for stroke prevention in patients with AF is as good as or better than that of warfarin. The NOACs are also associated with an equivalent or lower risk of bleeding. Regardless of the medication chosen, older patients with AF must be treated cautiously due to an increased risk of stroke and bleeding, as well as potential challenges related to drug interactions and monitoring requirements. NOACs may be suitable alternatives to warfarin for stroke prevention in older patients due to several advantages, including a faster onset of action, few drug or food interactions, and no requirement for regular monitoring. However, dose adjustments may be required for certain patients, such as those with severe renal impairment or in the setting of drug interactions.Keywords: aspirin, warfarin, dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, apixaban
Zur biologischen Vergleichbarkeit und biochemischen Wirksamkeit pharmazeutischer Magnesiumverbindungen
Golf SW
Journal für Mineralstoffwechsel , 1999,
Abstract: Die Magnesium (Mg)-Versorgung in Deutschland ist unzureichend. Zu einer ausgeglichenen Mg-Bilanz wird eine Aufnahme von 375 mg Mg/Tag ben tigt, die tats chliche Mg-Aufnahme liegt im Bev lkerungsdurchschnitt zwischen 250 und 300 mg/Tag. Zum Ausgleich dieser Unterversorgung k nnen pharmazeutische Mg-Pr parate verwendet werden. Die im Dünndarm gel sten Mg-Formulierungen verlieren dort ihre chemische Identit t und etwa ein Drittel der aufgenommenen Menge wird gemeinsam mit einem Anion im gesamten Darmbereich absorbiert. Mg wird von den Zellen durch organische Substanzen, z.B. ATP oder Nukleotide aufgenommen, die noch Bindungs quivalenzen für Mg frei haben. Das nicht gebundene Mg wird mit dem Urin ausgeschieden. Da die Urinausscheidung von Mg sehr rasch verl uft und Mg in den Zellen nur sehr langsam retiniert wird, entspricht der absorbierte Anteil des Nahrungs-Mg dem im Urin ausgeschiedenen Mg. Nur eine lange andauernde Mg-Supplementierung erh ht die Magnesiumkonzentration in den Zellen. Nach Mg-Gaben fand man bei physischem Stress reduzierte Glukose-, Laktat- und Insulinkonzentrationen im Serum, eine verminderte Aussch pfung des Stresspotentials durch die Hormone Cortisol, Aldosteron sowie die Katecholamine, ein erh hter Membranschutz der Muskelzellmembranen, sowie eine um etwa 10% gesteigerte physische Leistung. Es ist anzunehmen, da alle pharmazeutischen Mg-Pr parate hinsichtlich der Resorbierbarkeit der eingesetzten Mg-Verbindung und bezüglich der biochemischen Wirkungen bio quivalent sind.
über die Bedeutung von Magnesium bei der Tumorgenese
Golf SW
Journal für Mineralstoffwechsel , 2001,
Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) und die Tumorgenese sind in funktioneller wie in struktureller Hinsicht vielseitig miteinander verknüpft. Die Tumorzelle ist bef higt, Mg zu Lasten der Mg-Pools des Organismus in überh hter Konzentration zu speichern, auch wenn für den Organismus eine negative Mg-Bilanz vorliegt. Durch diese Ver nderung der Mg-Verteilung wird die Zelle in die Lage versetzt, den erh hten Enegiebedarf bei Zellwachstum, z.B. durch eine induzierte Proteinbiosynthese und RNA-/DNA-Biosynthese, sowie gesteigerte Transportvorg nge zu decken. Andererseits verlaufen zahlreiche Vorg nge bei der Protein-, RNA-/DNA-Synthese, bei der Signalentstehung und -Propagation, bei Teilen der Mitose (Umbau der nukle ren Struktur, Meta- und Anaphase) sowie bei der Metastase in einem akzelerierten Modus kalziumabh ngig, was diese Reaktionen stark Mg-abh ngig gestaltet. Ca verbleibt nur wenige Sekunden funktional und wird durch Influx in das endoplasmatische Retikulum (ER) aus dem Zytosol eliminiert, wodurch die Prozesse gebremst oder sogar unterbrochen werden. Für den Rücktransport von Ca in die intrazellul ren Speicher wird Mg ben tigt; somit kann Mg auch als Inhibitor dieser Vorg nge betrachtet werden. Auch die biologische Zytostase z. B. durch alpha-Tumornekrosefaktor (alphaTNF) verl uft Mg-abh ngig, da eine gesteigerte Resistenz der Tumorzelle gegenüber alphaTNF bei Mg-Mangel besteht. In struktureller Hinsicht kommen Mg bedeutende Wirkungen bei der Tumorgenese zu. Klassisch sind die schützenden Effekte von Mg bei der durch kanzerogene Metalle, z.B. Arsen, Beryllium, Chrom, Blei, Quecksilber und Nickel, ausgel sten Tumorgenese. Eine Schutzwirkung tritt vor allem bei einem Ungleichgewicht zwischen dem kanzerogenen Metall und dem Mg-Status des Organismus ein. In analoger Weise sind auch die Stabilit t von DNA und RNA sowie Reparaturmechanismen von DNA-Sch den nur in ausreichender Gegenwart von funktionellem Mg optimiert. Hinsichtlich der Immunkompetenz besteht auch quivalenz zwischen Mg-Mangel und Immunsuppression, die zu erleichterter Metastasierung führen kann. Bei den Membranparametern Cholesterin, Triglyceride und freie Fetts uren, die neben einer Membranfunktion auch Signalwirkungen und Transportaufgaben aufweisen, werden durch einen Mg-Mangel sowie nach einer Zelltransformation in überraschender übereinstimmung zahlreiche vergleichbare Modifikationen in qualitativer und quantitativer Hinsicht ausgel st.
The Effects of Mimosa Tannin on the Protein Precipitation in Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) and Protein Solubility in the Rumen of Cattle (Bos indicus)
SW Purbojo
Journal of Animal Production , 2005,
Abstract: Suatu studi dilakukan untuk menentukan apakah penambahan mimosa tannin pada daun Gliricidia yang ditumbuk dapat merangsang pembentukan ikatan tannin dan protein sehingga dapat melindungi degradasi protein oleh bakteri rumen. Daun Gliricidia yang telah ditumbuk, diberi perlakuan penambahan 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 dan 15% mimosa tannin, kemudian dibiarkan selama 0, 3, 6, 12 dan 24 jam. Selanjutnya, bahan tersebut diekstrak menggunakan 70% acetone dan kandungan protein yang terikat diukur dengan metoda radial diffusion assay. Percobaan kecernaan protein in situ menggunakan 4 ekor sapi berfistula, dilakukan untuk membandingkan derajat proteksi protein pada tumbukan daun Gliricidia dan Leucaena yang diberi perlakuan 0, 3 dan 6% mimosa tannin dan dibiarkan selama 1 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tumbukan daun Gliricidia yang diberi perlakuan mimosa tannin lebih dari 3% mampu menghasilkan pengikatan protein. Kadar pengikatan protein tertinggi tercatat setelah 6 jam waktu inkubasi dan cenderung menurun setelah itu. Percobaan kecernaan protein in situ menunjukkan bahwa tumbukan daun Gliricidia dengan perlakuan 6% mimosa tannin mempunyai kecernaan protein terendah di dalam rumen yakni 13.31%, dibandingkan dengan 22.38 dan 26.60% pada tumbukan daun Gliricidia dengan perlakuan 0 dan 3% mimosa tannin. Demikian pula nilai efektif degradasi terendah pada k=0.02 adalah tumbukan daun Gliricidia dengan perlakuan 6% mimosa tannin. Hasil penelitian ini menyarankan bahwa kandungan protein pada daun Gliricidia dapat diikat dengan 6% mimosa tannin dan selanjutnya dapat melindungi kandungan protein dari fermentasi mikroba rumen. (Animal Production 7(1): 21-26 (2005) Kata kunci : Mimosa tannin, protein precipitation complex, radial diffusion assay
The impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality: overview of the evidence so far
R Gabe, SW Duffy
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr826
Abstract: After eight randomised trials with 12–20 years follow-up, the pooled results show a significant 20% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14%, 27%) reduction in breast cancer mortality associated with invitation to screening. When stratified by age, the reductions were 15% (95% CI: 2%, 27%) for women aged under 50 and 22% (95% CI: 14%, 30%) for women aged 50–74.The search strategy for nonrandomised evidence relating to mortality yielded 12 descriptive studies, seven case-series, six case–control, eight cohort and three nonrandomised comparative studies. All indicated some benefit associated with screening. Overall, the case–control studies indicated a 35% (95% CI: 20%, 48%) reduction in breast cancer mortality associated with screening. The corresponding reduction for cohort studies was 44% (95% CI: 39%, 48%) for screening and 31% (95% CI: 21%, 40%) for invitation.The majority of evidence from randomised and nonrandomised sources demonstrates a reduction in breast cancer mortality with screening. Studies should continue to monitor the benefit of screening programmes, taking care to address potential forms of bias.
Laboratory development of wind turbine simulator using variable speed induction motor
SW Mohod, MV Aware
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The conventional synchronous generators in wind energy conversion system are now getting replaced by variable speed induction generator to extract maximum power with wide range of wind speed limit. The design and performance of such systems requires a simplified digital simulator, especially for the development of a optimal control solution .The proposed work is to make a prototype of variable speed wind conversion system simulator for a required operational condition under variable wind speed. In this paper variable speed induction motor drive using scalar control is interfaced in wind energy conversion system as an alternative to make the real time wind simulator for wind energy researchers. The basic power curve from wind generator is carried out through d-SPACE and interface of induction motor through an inverter control system. The induction motor is operated in wide speed range using Volt /Hertz speed control scheme. The laboratory prototype consists of 3 kW, 415 Volt, 50Hz induction motor controlled by voltage source inverter for various wind speed. The paper demonstrates the steady state characteristics of wind turbine without dependence on natural wind speed using Volt/Hertz. The basic control strategy is implemented through hardware system. The result verifies that the wind turbine simulator can reproduce the steady state characteristics of a given wind turbine at various wind conditions.
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