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Taijin-Kyofu-Sho (TKS) has long been considered as a
Japanese culture-bound form of social anxiety disorder, although subsequent
case-reports from countries outside Japan have dispelled this notion. There are subtle yet distinct differences between TKS and
DSM-defined social anxiety disorder (SAD). For instance, the TKS subject fears causing offence to others, whereas the SAD subject is more fearful of causing
embarrassment to him/herself. Four sub-categories of TKS have been recognised
of which the Jikoshu-kyofu variety resembles the olfactory reference syndrome
(ORS) known to Western psychiatrists. There are
two TKS subtypes, general (or
simple) and offensive (delusional). The general subtype resembles social anxiety
disorder, whereas the offensive subtype is characterised by delusions. True
community-wide prevalence is unknown, although clinic studies estimate between 7.8% to 45.5% patients have a diagnosis of TKS, with a
slight male preponderance. Cultural and societal norms engendering guilt,
shame, and embarrassment are likely etiological factors. Treatment may consist
of antidepressant and/or antipsychotic medications, while some patients may
also benefit from cognitive behavior therapy.
Although research has shown that loneliness in adolescents leads to higher rates of depressive symptoms, the presumed protective factor of social connectedness has not been studied in conjunction with these two constructs. The aim of the present study was to determine if social connectedness would predict lower loneliness and depressive symptoms over time in a large sample of adolescents. A large sample of adolescents (N = 1774; 9-16 years at Time 1) were surveyed three times, separated by one year each, with self-report measures of social connectedness, loneliness, and depressive symptoms obtained. As expected, social connectedness was negatively associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms concurrently and longitudinally. Contrary to prediction, social connectedness did not function as a buffer between loneliness and depressive symptoms over time. However, consistent with prediction, a significant longitudinal mediation pattern was obtained over the three years: the effect of social connectedness on depressive symptoms was mediated by loneliness. Social connectedness at T1 predicted a reduction in loneliness at T2, which in turn predicted a reduction in depressive symptoms at T3. Moderation analyses of this mediation pattern suggested that this obtained mediation result was obtained for males, but not females, and obtained for older adolescents, but not for younger adolescents. The results are congruent with the view that social connectedness exerts an effective protective influence on adolescents against loneliness and depressive symptoms.
This paper reports on the feedback of a
case study on peer-teaching activity in a third year university mathematics
course. The objective of the peer-teaching activity was to motivate learning
and raise student commitment. From the questionnaires conducted, students
welcomed the peer- teaching activity and their learning motivation was also improved.