Abstract:
We study long range propagation of electromagnetic waves in random waveguides with rectangular cross-section and perfectly conducting boundaries. The waveguide is filled with an isotropic linear dielectric material, with randomly fluctuating electric permittivity. The fluctuations are weak, but they cause significant cumulative scattering over long distances of propagation of the waves. We decompose the wave field in propagating and evanescent transverse electric and magnetic modes with random amplitudes that encode the cumulative scattering effects. They satisfy a coupled system of stochastic differential equations driven by the random fluctuations of the electric permittivity. We analyze the solution of this system with the diffusion approximation theorem, under the assumption that the fluctuations decorrelate rapidly in the range direction. The result is a detailed characterization of the transport of energy in the waveguide, the loss of coherence of the modes and the depolarization of the waves due to cumulative scattering.

Abstract:
We analyze long range wave propagation in three-dimensional random waveguides. The waves are trapped by top and bottom boundaries, but the medium is unbounded in the two remaining directions. We consider scalar waves, and motivated by applications in underwater acoustics, we take a pressure release boundary condition at the top surface and a rigid bottom boundary. The wave speed in the waveguide is known and smooth, but the top boundary has small random fluctuations that cause significant cumulative scattering of the waves over long distances of propagation. To quantify the scattering effects, we study the evolution of the random amplitudes of the waveguide modes. We obtain that in the long range limit they satisfy a system of paraxial equations driven by a Brownian field. We use this system to estimate three important mode-dependent scales: the scattering mean free path, the cross-range decoherence length and the decoherence frequency. Understanding these scales is important in imaging and communication problems, because they encode the cumulative scattering effects in the wave field measured by remote sensors. As an application of the theory, we analyze time reversal and coherent interferometric imaging in strong cumulative scattering regimes.

Abstract:
We derive from first principles a one way radiative transfer equation for the wave intensity resolved over directions (Wigner transform) in random media. It is an initial value problem with excitation from a source which emits waves in a preferred, forward direction. The equation is derived in a regime with small random fluctuations of the wave speed but long distances of propagation with respect to the wavelength, so that cumulative scattering is significant. The correlation length of the medium and the scale of the support of the source are slightly larger than the wavelength, and the waves propagate in a wide cone with opening angle less than $180^o$, so that the backward and evanescent waves are negligible. The scattering regime is a bridge between that of radiative transfer, where the waves propagate in all directions and the paraxial regime, where the waves propagate in a narrow angular cone. We connect the one way radiative transport equation with the equations satisfied by the Wigner transform in these regimes.

Abstract:
We study Maxwell's equations in random media with small fluctuations of the electric permittivity. We consider a setup where the waves propagate along a preferred direction, called range. We decompose the electromagnetic wave field in transverse electric and transverse magnetic plane waves with random amplitudes that model cumulative scattering effects in the medium. Their evolution in range is described by a coupled system of stochastic differential equations driven by the random fluctuations of the electric permittivity. We analyze the solution of this system with the diffusion limit theorem and obtain a detailed asymptotic characterization of the electromagnetic wave field in the long range limit. In particular, we quantify the loss of coherence of the waves due to scattering, by calculating the range scales (scattering mean free paths) on which the mean amplitudes of the transverse electric and magnetic plane waves decay. We also quantify the loss of polarization induced by scattering, by analyzing the Wigner transform (energy density) of the electromagnetic wave field. This analysis involves the derivation of transport equations with polarization. We study in detail these equations and connect the results with the existing radiative transport literature.

Abstract:
We study cumulative scattering effects on wave front propagation in time dependent randomly layered media. It is well known that the wave front has a deterministic characterization in time independent media, aside from a small random shift in the travel time. That is, the pulse shape is predictable, but faded and smeared as described mathematically by a convolution kernel determined by the autocorrelation of the random fluctuations of the wave speed. The main result of this paper is the extension of the pulse stabilization results to time dependent randomly layered media. When the media change slowly, on time scales that are longer than the pulse width and the time it takes the waves to traverse a correlation length, the pulse is not affected by the time fluctuations. In rapidly changing media, where these time scales are similar, both the pulse shape and the random component of the arrival time are affected by the statistics of the time fluctuations of the wave speed. We obtain an integral equation for the wave front, that is more complicated than in time independent media, and cannot be solved analytically, in general. We also give examples of media where the equation simplifies, and the wave front can be analyzed explicitly. We illustrate with these examples how the time fluctuations feed energy into the pulse. Explicitly, we quantify the trade-off between pulse enhancement in dynamic media and pulse fading due to scattering by the random layers.

Abstract:
We study array imaging of a sparse scene of point-like sources or scatterers in a homogeneous medium. For source imaging the sensors in the array are receivers that collect measurements of the wave field. For imaging scatterers the array probes the medium with waves and records the echoes. In either case the image formation is stated as a sparsity promoting $\ell_1$ optimization problem, and the goal of the paper is to quantify the resolution. We consider both narrow-band and broad-band imaging, and a geometric setup with a small array. We take first the case of the unknowns lying on the imaging grid, and derive resolution limits that depend on the sparsity of the scene. Then we consider the general case with the unknowns at arbitrary locations. The analysis is based on estimates of the cumulative mutual coherence and a related concept, which we call interaction coefficient. It complements recent results in compressed sensing by deriving deterministic resolution limits that account for worse case scenarios in terms of locations of the unknowns in the imaging region, and also by interpreting the results in some cases where uniqueness of the solution does not hold. We demonstrate the theoretical predictions with numerical simulations.

Abstract:
We consider the problem of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging and motion estimation of complex scenes. By complex we mean scenes with multiple targets, stationary and in motion. We use the usual setup with one moving antenna emitting and receiving signals. We address two challenges: (1) the detection of moving targets in the complex scene and (2) the separation of the echoes from the stationary targets and those from the moving targets. Such separation allows high resolution imaging of the stationary scene and motion estimation with the echoes from the moving targets alone. We show that the robust principal component analysis (PCA) method which decomposes a matrix in two parts, one low rank and one sparse, can be used for motion detection and data separation. The matrix that is decomposed is the pulse and range compressed SAR data indexed by two discrete time variables: the slow time, which parametrizes the location of the antenna, and the fast time, which parametrizes the echoes received between successive emissions from the antenna. We present an analysis of the rank of the data matrix to motivate the use of the robust PCA method. We also show with numerical simulations that successful data separation with robust PCA requires proper data windowing. Results of motion estimation and imaging with the separated data are presented, as well.

Abstract:
We study synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging and motion estimation of complex scenes consisting of stationary and moving targets. We use the classic SAR setup with a single antenna emitting signals and receiving the echoes from the scene. The known motion estimation methods for such setups work only in simple cases, with one or a few targets in the same motion. We propose to extend the applicability of these methods to complex scenes, by complementing them with a data pre-processing step intended to separate the echoes from the stationary targets and the moving ones. We present two approaches. The first is an iteration designed to subtract the echoes from the stationary targets one by one. It estimates the location of each stationary target from a preliminary image, and then uses it to define a filter that removes its echo from the data. The second approach is based on the robust principle component analysis (PCA) method. The key observation is that with appropriate pre-processing and windowing, the discrete samples of the stationary target echoes form a low rank matrix, whereas the samples of a few moving target echoes form a high rank sparse matrix. The robust PCA method is designed to separate the low rank from the sparse part, and thus can be used for the SAR data separation. We present a brief analysis of the two methods and explain how they can be combined to improve the data separation for extended and complex imaging scenes. We also assess the performance of the methods with extensive numerical simulations.

Abstract:
We present a quantitative study of coherent array imaging of remote sources in randomly perturbed waveguides with bounded cross-section. We study how long range cumulative scattering by perturbations of the boundary and the medium impedes the imaging process. We show that boundary scattering effects can be mitigated with filters that enhance the coherent part of the data. The filters are obtained by optimizing a measure of quality of the image. The point is that there is an optimal trade-off between the robustness and resolution of images in such waveguides, which can be found adaptively, as the data are processed to form the image. Long range scattering by perturbations of the medium is harder to mitigate than scattering by randomly perturbed boundaries. Coherent imaging methods do not work and more complex incoherent methods, based on transport models of energy, should be used instead. Such methods are nor useful, nor needed in waveguides with perturbed boundaries. We explain all these facts using rigorous asymptotic stochastic analysis of the wave field in randomly perturbed waveguides. We also analyze the adaptive coherent imaging method and obtain a quantitative agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

Abstract:
We study an inverse scattering problem for Maxwell's equations in terminating waveguides, where localized reflectors are to be imaged using a remote array of sensors. The array probes the waveguide with waves and measures the scattered returns. The mathematical formulation of the inverse scattering problem is based on the electromagnetic Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation and an explicit calculation of the Green tensor. The image formation is carried with reverse time migration and with $\ell_1$ optimization.