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W : A propos du roman inédit de David Vogel en yiddish “W ” : About David Vogel’s unpublished novel in Yiddish W : –
Lilach Nethanel
Yod : Revue des études Hébra?ques et Juives , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/yod.657
Abstract: At the beginning of the 1940s, Hebrew writer David Vogel (1891-1944) started to write a Yiddish novel for the first time. As an Austrian citizen living in France, he had been held in a camp for suspicious foreigners. His narrative, inspired by this experience, remained untitled after he was captured and sent to death by the Gestapo at the beginning of 1944. Its original version has never been published.This article gives an overview of critical approaches to this text that have been published up to now. It proposes an analysis based on Merleau-Ponty’s linguistic thought and on the principles of literary genetics. The manuscript, with its deletions and additions, is approached in the light of all the languages in which the author could have written in and that leave their mark on the narrative. The author of this article argues that the poetics of foreign language is more central than the question of Vogel’s linguistic identity. His writing in Yiddish thus poses the problem of the status of this language in a world where things are no longer called what they were. 40 (1891 - 1944) . , . , , 1944, . . – , – . – , , , – . . – , .
Genome-wide polysomal analysis of a yeast strain with mutated ribosomal protein S9
Lilach Pnueli, Yoav Arava
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-285
Abstract: We performed a genome-wide analysis to reveal effects at the transcription and translation levels of all yeast genes. While negligible relative changes were observed in steady-state mRNA levels, a significant number of mRNAs appeared to have altered ribosomal density. Notably, 40% of the genes having reliable signals changed their ribosomal association by more than one ribosome. Yet, no general correlations with physical or functional features of the mRNA were observed. Ribosome Density Mapping (RDM) along four of the mRNAs with increased association revealed an increase in ribosomal density towards the end of the coding region for at least two of them. Read-through analysis did not reveal any increase in read-through of a premature stop codon by the mutant strain.The ribosomal protein rpS9 appears to be involved in the translation of many mRNAs, since altering its C terminus led to a significant change in ribosomal association of many mRNAs. We did not find strong correlations between these changes and several physical features of the mRNA, yet future studies with advanced tools may allow such correlations to be determined. Importantly, our results indicate an accumulation of ribosomes towards the end of the coding regions of some mRNAs. This suggests an involvement of S9 in ribosomal dissociation during translation termination.The ribosome is a large RNA-protein complex having multiple roles in the translation process. The RNA moiety in eukaryotes includes four RNA molecules that provide the structural scaffold for the functional sites of the ribosome, and interacts with various proteins of the translation machinery. The protein moiety is composed of more than 70 proteins, located mostly at the ribosome's periphery. These proteins were shown to play various roles, including assistance in ribosome assembly, interaction with translation initiation factors, stabilization of the ribosome structure, and more [1,2].The yeast ribosomal protein S9 (sup46) is known to play
Sexual selection and the evolution of obligatory sex
Lilach Hadany, Tuvik Beker
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-7-245
Abstract: We show that when sexual selection is present obligatory sex can evolve and be maintained even against facultative sex, under common scenarios of deleterious mutations and environmental changes.Sexual reproduction remains a mystery, and sex as the only mode of reproduction for a species – an even greater mystery. All else being equal, females reproducing asexually have twice the number of their genes transmitted to the next generation, compared with ones that mate with males [1]. Multiple factors, including deleterious mutations [2-4], adaptation events [5-7], parasites [8,9], and combinations of the above [10-12] were suggested to explain the benefits of sex against complete asexuality. However, there is no satisfactory explanation for the prevalence of obligatory sex in the face of facultative sexual reproduction. Rather, most of the advantages of sex should still accrue when only a small proportion of the offspring are produced sexually, while the cost of sex would be largely avoided [13-16]. The hardest case for the evolution of obligatory sex occurs in the realistic scenario whereby the reproductive isolation between obligatory and facultative sexuals is incomplete. In such a case the long-term advantages of obligaotry sex are shared with the facultative subpopulation, and the maintenance of obligatory sex depends on its short term benefits. No existing model has identified conditions under which obligatory sex would be favored in this scenario. The maintenance of obligatory sex is especially hard to explain when considering mutant alleles which induce sexual reproduction only when the condition of the individual is poor [17-19]. Such mutants would pay the cost of sex only when needed, and would have the "abandon-ship" advantage: they would be able to break away from unfit genomes and associate themselves to fitter ones, resulting in a strong short term advantage [18,19].Another factor that occurs in sexual populations but not in asexual ones is sexual selectio
In vivo characteristics of targeted drug-carrying filamentous bacteriophage nanomedicines
Lilach Vaks, Itai Benhar
Journal of Nanobiotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-3155-9-58
Abstract: With an intention to move to animal experimentation of efficacy, we tested anti-bacterial drug-carrying phage nanomedicines for toxicity and immunogenicity and blood pharmacokinetics upon injection into mice. Here we show that anti-bacterial drug-carrying phage nanomedicines that carry the antibiotic chloramphenicol conjugated via an aminoglycoside linker are non-toxic to mice and are greatly reduced in immunogenicity in comparison to native phage particles or particles to which the drug is conjugated directly and are cleared from the blood more slowly in comparison to native phage particles.Our results suggest that aminoglycosides may serve as branched solubility enhancing linkers for drug conjugation that also provide for a better safety profile of the targeted nanomedicine.The majority of known anti-bacterial approaches are based on the selectivity and potency of the antibiotic molecule itself, excluding highly toxic and non-specific therapeutics from the clinical application. The attaching of a non-selective drug to the suitable targeted carrier could provide specificity to the therapeutic complex and may improve its physical and biological characteristics such as solubility, cytotoxicity, circulation half-life and distribution to certain tissues and cells.This study continues the evaluation of an anti-bacterial approach we have recently introduced that included the application of the bacteriophage (phage) nanoparticle as targeted, high-capacity anti-bacterial drug carriers [1,2]. In this approach, the phage particle served as a drug-carrying platform that was genetically and chemically modified to display a targeting moiety (mostly an antibody) on its surface and was used to deliver a large payload of a cytotoxic drug to the target bacteria. The platform was based on the f1 filamentous coliphage that was displaying anti-bacterial peptide or antibody on the minor pIII coat protein. The displayed protein provided the specific targeting to the pathogen while the n
Implications of stress-induced genetic variation for minimizing multidrug resistance in bacteria
Obolski Uri,Hadany Lilach
BMC Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-89
Abstract: Background Antibiotic resistance in bacterial infections is a growing threat to public health. Recent evidence shows that when exposed to stressful conditions, some bacteria perform higher rates of horizontal gene transfer and mutation, and thus acquire antibiotic resistance more rapidly. Methods We incorporate this new notion into a mathematical model for the emergence of antibiotic multi-resistance in a hospital setting. Results We show that when stress has a considerable effect on genetic variation, the emergence of antibiotic resistance is dramatically affected. A strategy in which patients receive a combination of antibiotics (combining) is expected to facilitate the emergence of multi-resistant bacteria when genetic variation is stress-induced. The preference between a strategy in which one of two effective drugs is assigned randomly to each patient (mixing), and a strategy where only one drug is administered for a specific period of time (cycling) is determined by the resistance acquisition mechanisms. We discuss several features of the mechanisms by which stress affects variation and predict the conditions for success of different antibiotic treatment strategies. Conclusions These findings should encourage research on the mechanisms of stress-induced genetic variation and establish the importance of incorporating data about these mechanisms when considering antibiotic treatment strategies.
New Array Approaches to Explore Single Cells Genomes
Evelyne Vanneste,Lilach Bittman
Frontiers in Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2012.00044
Abstract: Microarray analysis enables the genome-wide detection of copy number variations and the investigation of chromosomal instability. Whereas array techniques have been well established for the analysis of unamplified DNA derived from many cells, it has been more challenging to enable the accurate analysis of single cell genomes. In this review, we provide an overview of single cell DNA amplification techniques, the different array approaches, and discuss their potential applications to study human embryos.
Quenching the Superconducting State of Cuprate Compounds with Electric Currents: A Variational Study
Lilach Goren,Ehud Altman
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.257002
Abstract: We investigate the properties of cuprate superconductors subject to applied current, using modified Gutzwiller projected d-wave BCS states. The parent states include quasiparticle and quasihole pockets, of variationally determined size, generated by the current. We identify two different mechanisms for the destruction of superconductivity at the critical current: at high hole doping (x>0.15) the pockets grow and completely destroy the gap, in a BCS-like mechanism; in the underdoped regime, the superfluid stiffness vanishes at a maximal phase twist with pairing still intact. This result is indicative of a pseudogapped "normal" state which retains pairing correlations. The critical current as a function of doping displays a dome shape, similar to Tc. We predict unique signatures of the current induced Fermi pockets that can be seen in angle resolved photo emission spectroscopy.
Enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature in cuprate heterostructures
Lilach Goren,Ehud Altman
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.174509
Abstract: Is it possible to increase Tc by constructing cuprate heterostructures, which combine the high pairing energy of underdoped layers with the large carrier density of proximate overdoped layers? We investigate this question within a model bilayer system using an effective theory of the doped Mott insulator. Interestingly, the question hinges on the fundamental nature of the superconducting state in the underdoped regime. Within a plain slave boson mean field theory, there is absolutely no enhancement of Tc. However, we do get a substantial enhancement for moderate inter-layer tunneling when we use an effective low energy theory of the bilayer in which the effective quasiparticle charge in the underdoped regime is taken as an independent phenomenological parameter. We study the Tc enhancement as a function of the doping level and the inter-layer tunneling, and discuss possible connections to recent experiments by Yuli et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 057005 (2008)]. Finally, we predict a unique paramagnetic reduction of the zero temperature phase stiffness of coupled layers, which depends on the difference in the current carried by quasiparticles on the two types of layers as (J1-J2)^2.
Enhancement of the critical temperature in cuprate superconductors by inhomogeneous doping
Lilach Goren,Ehud Altman
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.094508
Abstract: We use a renormalized mean field theory to investigate the superconducting properties of underdoped cuprates embedded with overdoped or metallic regions that carry excess dopants. The overdoped regions are considered, within two different models, first as stripes of mesoscopic size larger than the coherence length and then as point impurities. In the former case we compute the temperature dependent superfluid stiffness by solving Bogoliubov de Gennes equations within the slave boson mean field theory. We average over stripes of different orientations to obtain an isotropic result. To compute the superfluid stiffness in the model with point impurities we resort to a diagrammatic expansion in the impurity concentration (to first order) and their strength (up to second order). We find analytic expressions for the disorder averaged superfluid stiffness and the critical temperature. For both types of inhomogeneity we find increased superfluid stiffness, and for a wide range of doping enhancement of Tc relative to a homogeneously underdoped system. Remarkably, in the case of microscopic impurities we find that the maximal Tc can be significantly increased compared to Tc at optimal doping of a pure system.
Bounded Degree Planar Geometric Spanners
Paz Carmi,Lilach Chaitman
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Given a set $P$ of $n$ points in the plane, we show how to compute in $O(n \log n)$ time a subgraph of their Delaunay triangulation that has maximum degree 7 and is a strong planar $t$-spanner of $P$ with $t =(1+ \sqrt{2})^2 *\delta$, where $\delta$ is the spanning ratio of the Delaunay triangulation. Furthermore, given a Delaunay triangulation, we show a distributed algorithm that computes the same bounded degree planar spanner in O(n) time.
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