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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2947 matches for " Liju Elias "
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Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on hydrogen evolution reaction activity of Ni coatings
Revanna Kullaiah,Liju Elias,Ampar Chitharanjan Hegde
- , 2018, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-018-1593-8
Abstract: The electrocatalytic activity of electrodeposited Ni and Ni–TiO2 coatings with regard to the alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was investigated. The Ni coatings were electrodeposited from an acid chloride bath at different current densities, and their HER activities were examined in a 1.0-mol·L-1 KOH medium. The variations in the HER activity of the Ni coatings with changes in surface morphology and composition were examined via the electrochemical dissolution and incorporation of nanoparticles. Electrochemical analysis methods were used to monitor the HER activity of the test electrodes; this activity was confirmed via the quantification of gases that evolved during the analysis. The obtained results demonstrated that the Ni–TiO2 nanocomposite test electrode exhibited maximum activity toward the alkaline HER. The surface appearance, composition, and the phase structure of all developed coatings were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The improvement in the electrocatalytic activity of Ni–TiO2 nanocomposite coating toward HER was attributed to the variation in surface morphology and increased number of active sites.
Upper Cervical Spine Infection. Complication of Hypopharyngeal Injury  [PDF]
Ghassan Skaf, Elias Elias
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2016.52016
Abstract: Background: We describe a rare case of Candida albicans retropharyngeal infection with upper cervical spondylodiscitis associated with epidural abscess triggered by ingestion of a chicken bone. Case Description: A 63-year-old woman presented with posterior neck and bilateral shoulders pain three weeks after choking on a 2-centimeter chicken bone. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess with significant spinal cord compression at C2 and C3 levels. A Barium swallow showed a focal disruption of the posterior wall of the esophagus. A posterior upper cervical fixation (C2-C5) was initially performed. One week later an anterior decompressive procedure was carried out followed by iliac crest bony fusion, and repair of the esophageal defect. Intra-operative cultures showed heavy growth of Candida albicans. After a transitory post-operative neurologic worsening, and after six weeks of appropriate antifungal therapy, the patient achieved a full clinical and radiologic recovery. Conclusion: Prompt surgical debridement, fusion and stabilization combined with adequate antimicrobial agents are necessary to guarantee a good outcome and reverse the neurological deficits.
Response of Phytoplankton Community Structure and Size- Fractionated Chlorophyll a in an Upwelling Simulation Experiment in the Western South China Sea Response of Phytoplankton Community Structure and Size- Fractionated Chlorophyll a in an Upwelling Simulation Experiment in the Western South China Sea
CUI Dongyang,WANG Jiangtao,TAN Liju
- , 2016,
Abstract: The South China Sea(SCS), which is the largest marginal sea in the western tropical Pacific, plays an important role in regional climate change. However, the research on the phytoplankton community structure(PCS) response to the upwelling remains inadequate. In January 2014, the upwelling simulation experiment was performed in the western SCS. Results indicate that the nutrient-rich bottom water not only increased the total Chlorophyll a(Chl a) concentrations, but would potentially altered the PCS. Due to new nutrients added, microphytoplankton had more sensitivity response to nutrient uptake than other phytoplankton groups. The variation of nutrients induced by formation, weakening and disappearance of upwelling resulted in phytoplankton species succession from cyanophyta to bacillariophyta. It may be the leading factor of the changes in PCS and size-fractionated Chl a. The initial concentration of DIP less than 0.1 μmol L-1 could not sustain the phytoplankton growth. This indicates that phosphorus may be the limiting factor in the western SCS
Minimizing Complementary Pivots in a Simplex-Based Solution Method for a Quadratic Programming Problem  [PDF]
Elias Munapo
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2012.23037
Abstract: The paper presents an approach for avoiding and minimizing the complementary pivots in a simplex based solution method for a quadratic programming problem. The linearization of the problem is slightly changed so that the simplex or interior point methods can solve with full speed. This is a big advantage as a complementary pivot algorithm will take roughly eight times as longer time to solve a quadratic program than the full speed simplex-method solving a linear problem of the same size. The strategy of the approach is in the assumption that the solution of the quadratic programming problem is near the feasible point closest to the stationary point assuming no constraints.
A Novel Process for the Study of Breakage Energy versus Particle Size  [PDF]
Elias Stamboliadis
Geomaterials (GM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2013.33013
Abstract: The energy size relationship is examined, either as the specific energy required breaking a particulate material from an initial size d1 to a final size d2, where d is usually the d80 size, or as the specific energy required to break a single particle. The present work uses the results obtained using a controlled frequency centrifugal crusher to crush particles of a predetermined size class under different rotation frequencies related to the kinetic energy of the particles at the moment of crushing. The paper calculates the relationship between the rotation frequency and the kinetic energy of the particles before crushing and examines the size distribution of the products. The study results allow presenting the relationship between the kinetic energy of the particles and the mass of particles produced below the initial size class. The work also produces the optimum mathematical model that describes this relationship among three proposed ones. According to this model one can calculate the energy required breaking half of the initial mass below the initial size class and the corresponding specific energy is appointed to the average size of the class. The parameters of the mathematical model can be used to compare the grindability of the different materials. The process can be used as an alternative to the drop weight technique used so far for the study of the breakage energy of minerals and rocks.

Solving the Binary Linear Programming Model in Polynomial Time  [PDF]
Elias Munapo
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2016.61001

The paper presents a technique for solving the binary linear programming model in polynomial time. The general binary linear programming problem is transformed into a convex quadratic programming problem. The convex quadratic programming problem is then solved by interior point algorithms. This settles one of the open problems of whether P = NP or not. The worst case complexity of interior point algorithms for the convex quadratic problem is polynomial. It can also be shown that every liner integer problem can be converted into binary linear problem.

Effects of Dielectrophoresis on Growth, Viability and Immuno-reactivity of Listeria monocytogenes
Liju Yang, Padmapriya P Banada, Arun K Bhunia, Rashid Bashir
Journal of Biological Engineering , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1754-1611-2-6
Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes is considered as one of the most hazardous, potentially life-threatening, human foodborne pathogens. It can contaminate many food products, such as milk, cheese, ice cream, raw vegetables, poultry products, and meats. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that there are 2,500 illnesses with 500 deaths associated with listeriosis in the United States each year [1]. The development of rapid, sensitive, simple and cost effective methods to detect this pathogen is extremely important in implementing an effective response to the prevention of foodborne diseases. Conventional microbiological methods are time-consuming, largely because they require several enrichment and separation steps (e.g. pre-enrichment, selective enrichment) to grow cells to detectable concentrations. Many recently developed rapid methods have sought to accelerate or eliminate traditional growth-based enrichment steps by using newly discovered concentration or separation methods that are not limited by bacterial growth. These methods include membrane filtration, magnetic separation, dielectrophoresis, and electrophoresis to concentrate bacteria cells [2]. Among these, dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been proven especially suitable for manipulation, concentration, and separation of biological cells in micro-scaled devices, and has great potential to be integrated with various detection methods [3,4].DEP is the electrokinetic motion of dielectrically polarized particles in a non-uniform AC electrical field due to the unbalanced force of the electrical field on the particle's induced dipole moment [5]. The dielectrophoretic force, FDEP, acting on a dielectric spherical particle suspended in a medium in an electrical field can be approximated as Eq. 1 [6-9],where, r is the particle radius, ε0 is the vacuum dielectric constant, εm is the permittivity of the suspending medium, Erms is the root mean square value of the electrical field, and Re[fCM(ω)]the real part
Early detection of sudden cardiac death by using classical linear techniques and time-frequency methods on electrocardiogram signals  [PDF]
Elias Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Pooyan
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2011.411087
Abstract: Early detection of sudden cardiac death may be used for surviving the life of cardiac patients. In this paper we have investigated an algorithm to detect and predict sudden cardiac death, by processing of heart rate variability signal through the classical and time-frequency methods. At first, one minute of ECG signals, just before the cardiac death event are extracted and used to compute heart rate variability (HRV) signal. Five features in time domain and four features in frequency domain are extracted from the HRV signal and used as classical linear features. Then the Wigner Ville transform is applied to the HRV signal, and 11 extra features in the time-frequency (TF) domain are obtained. In order to improve the performance of classification, the principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the obtained features vector. Finally a neural network classifier is applied to the reduced features. The obtained results show that the TF method can classify normal and SCD subjects, more efficiently than the classical methods. A MIT-BIH ECG database was used to evaluate the proposed method. The proposed method was implemented using MLP classifier and had 74.36% and 99.16% correct detection rate (accuracy) for classical features and TF method, respectively. Also, the accuracy of the KNN classifier were 73.87% and 96.04%.
Ciprofloxacin Cardiotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Humans and Animals  [PDF]
Elias Adikwu, Nelson Brambaifa
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.32028

Ciprofloxacin is generally well tolerated; the most common adverse effects include gastro intestinal tract, central nervous system and hematological system effects. Recently rising cases of Ciprofloxacin associated toxicity have been reported. Experiment using animal models and clinical experience showed that Ciprofloxacin induced cardiotoxicity is marked by increase QT and QTC interval and prolonged action potential duration. This increases the risk of arrhythmia (tosarde de pointes). Ciprofloxacin induced cardiotoxic effect could be associated with blocking cardiac voltage—gated potassium channels particularly the rapid component (IKr) of the delayed rectifier potassium current. Drug interaction with inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated metabolism could be one of the underlying mechanisms. Several cases of Ciprofloxacin induced hepatoxicity have been also reported. These were characterized by extensive hepatocellular necrosis, mixed inflammatory infiltrate and abundant esinophils in the liver. Elevated liver enzymes which include serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gramma-glutamyltranferase

Fluoroquinolones Reported Hepatotoxicity  [PDF]
Elias Adikwu, Oputiri Deo
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.33044
Abstract: Fluoroquinolones are known to be safe and well tolerated. They are said to have the widest clinical acceptability when compared with other antibiotics. Their reported side effects include gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system effect and blood disorder. Rare side effects include phototoxicity, hypersensitivity, convulsion, psychosis, tendinitis, hypoglycemia, cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Some of these side effects have led to the withdrawal of some fluoroquinolones like travofloxacin from clinical use in some countries. Of recent fluoroquinolones induce cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity has gain attention. Due to increasing reports on fluoroquinolones associated hepatotoxicity in experimental Animal studies and clinical experience. This study reviews reported hepatotoxicity associated with clinically used fluoroquinolones and their safety profile on liver function. It was observed that some fluoroquinolones may have hepatotoxic potential. Reported fluoroquinolones induce hepatotoxicity manifested as hepatitis, pancreatis, jaundice, liver injury and hepatic failure. Most reported cases of fluoroquinolones induced hepatotoxicity were marked by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin and prolong prothrobin time. In some reported cases liver biopsy revealed hepatocellular damage, necrosis and degeneration. Mixed inflammatory infiltrates containing eosinophils, portal edema, bile ductular proliferation and lobular cholestasis were also observed in some cases. The mechanism of fluoroquinolones induce hepatotoxicity may involve generation of oxidative radicals in the liver during drug metabolism which induces DNA damage, mitochondrial damage and gene regulation leading to hepatocellular damage. This was observed in travofloxacin which enhances hepatic mitochondrial peroxynitrite stress in mice with underlying increased basal levels of super oxide leading to the disruption of critical mitochondrial enzyme and gene regulation. This mechanism could be associated with fluoroquinolones mechanism of action which includes DNA damage. In conclusion fluoroquinolones are well tolerated but some may have hepatotoxic potential. Most clinically used fluoroquinolones are relatively safe but Clinicians should consider patients liver function status before fluoroquinolones clinical recommendation. In some cases biochemical parameters associated with liver function should be monitored in patients with impaired liver function.
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