Abstract:
Freeze drying is reported to be the best method of dehydration. Live fresh Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) were freeze dried. The moisture content, rehydration ratio, and fatty acid composition of freeze-dried crabs were analysed. The applicability of using freeze drying to process high-value E. sinensis, so as to prolong the time duration of their storage and marketing, were discussed. After lyophilisation, the average moisture content was 6%. The physical properties (shape, size, and colour) of the musculature and viscera were maintained well during freeze drying. The rehydration ratio was 2.15 when rehydrated for 30 min at room temperature. The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, were higher in female freeze-dried crabs than in male crabs. After full rehydration, the fatty acid composition of freeze-dried crabs showed no significant differences to that of frozen crabs after thawing. In conclusion, freeze drying can well preserve the physical properties of the edible parts and fatty acid composition of the viscera in high-value E. sinensis. Rehydration has no destruction of the nutritional value regarding to the fatty acid composition. Therefore, freeze drying is a suitable technique for the processing of high-value E. sinensis.

Abstract:
Nowadays, positron emission tomography (PET) is widely used in engineering. In this paper, a novel penalized maximum likelihood (PML) algorithm is presented for improving the quality of PET images. The proposed algorithm fuses an anisotropic median-diffusion (AMD) filter to the maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) algorithm. The fusing algorithm shows its positive effect on image reconstruction and denoising. Experimental results present that the proposed method denoises and reconstructs images with high quality. Furthermore, by comparing with other classical reconstructing algorithms, this novel algorithm shows better performance in the edge preservation. 1. Introduction PET technology, which has been widely used in neurology, oncology, and new medicine exploitation, is one of the advanced and noninvasive diagnostic techniques in modern nuclear medical. In order to obtain a high quality reconstructed image from clinical projection data with strong noise, an excellent image reconstruction algorithm is indispensable. The MLEM algorithm is a classic method in PET image reconstruction when the measured data follows Poisson distribution [1]. One problem of this algorithm is the ill-posed problem, which represents that the reconstructed images cannot remove the noise of projection data [2]. Today, an ill-posed image reconstruction problem, such as MLEM, can be transformed into a well-posed one through the use of regularization term. The reconstructed results should be not only content with measured data to some extent but also be consistent with additional regularization term that is independent of those data at the same time. That is usually called PML or Bayesian algorithm. Numerous PML algorithms have been proposed in the past decades [3–10]. Thereinto, Green proposed a Bayesian algorithm, known as the one-step-late (OSL) algorithm [6]. The key of this algorithm is to find an appropriate energy function, which is defined by Gibbs probability distribution. Unfortunately, the selection of the energy function is difficult. The median root prior (MRP) algorithm [9], firstly proposed by Alenius, is an application of OSL algorithm. This algorithm is good at coping with those images that have locally monotonic structures. However, the images reconstructed by MRP are still noisy because median filter cannot remove Gaussian and Poisson noise effectively, which dominate in PET images [7]. The anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter [11] is a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) based on diffusion process. Overcoming the undesirable effects of

Abstract:
The profiles of particle concentration in saltation layer versus height are calculated, by the motion equations for a saltating grain in conjunction with different probability distribution functions of the vertical liftoff velocities of grains and an empirical expression of wind velocity. The numerical results demonstrated that the stratification phenomenon exists in the particle concentration profiles and showed increasing, saturating and decreasing features, respectively, when the probability distribution functions of liftoff velocities adopted in the calculation are similar to a normal distribution or a two-parameter gamma distribution. When the distribution function of liftoff velocities is taken as an exponential form, the profile of particle concentration decreases monotonically. A numerical simulation of mass flux of grains, performed by the model suggested in this paper, is in reasonable accordance with the measured data.

Abstract:
In the title molecule, C24H23Cl2N3O7, the central benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 65.71 (1) and 44.42 (1)° with the pyrimidine ring and the terminal benzene ring, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked via C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

Abstract:
The stability of stochastic delayed Cellular Neural Networks (DCNN) is investigated in this paper. Using suitable Lyapunov functional and the semimartingale convergence theorem, we obtain some sufficient conditions for checking the almost sure exponential stability of the DCNN.

Abstract:
With the help of the continuation theorem of the coincidence degree, a priori estimates, and differential inequalities, we make a further investigation of a class of planar systems, which is generalization of some existing neural networks under a time-varying environment. Without assuming the smoothness, monotonicity, and boundedness of the activation functions, a set of sufficient conditions is given for checking the existence of periodic solution and global exponential stability for such neural networks. The obtained results extend and improve some earlier publications.

Abstract:
With the help of the continuation theorem of the coincidence degree, a priori estimates, and differential inequalities, we make a further investigation of a class of planar systems, which is generalization of some existing neural networks under a time-varying environment. Without assuming the smoothness, monotonicity, and boundedness of the activation functions, a set of sufficient conditions is given for checking the existence of periodic solution and global exponential stability for such neural networks. The obtained results extend and improve some earlier publications.

Abstract:
The n-fold Darboux transformation (DT) is a 2\times2 matrix for the Kaup-Newell (KN) system. In this paper,each element of this matrix is expressed by a ratio of $(n+1)\times (n+1)$ determinant and $n\times n$ determinant of eigenfunctions. Using these formulae, the expressions of the $q^{[n]}$ and $r^{[n]}$ in KN system are generated by n-fold DT. Further, under the reduction condition, the rogue wave,rational traveling solution, dark soliton, bright soliton, breather solution, periodic solution of the derivative nonlinear Schr\"odinger(DNLS) equation are given explicitly by different seed solutions. In particular, the rogue wave and rational traveling solution are two kinds of new solutions. The complete classification of these solutions generated by one-fold DT is given in the table on page.

Abstract:
In this letter,the designable integrability(DI) of the variable coefficient derivative nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation (VCDNLSE) is shown by construction of an explicit transformation which maps VCDNLSE to the usual derivative nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation(DNLSE). One novel feature of VCDNLSE with DI is that its coefficients can be designed artificially and analytically by using transformation. What is more, from the rogue wave and rational traveling solution of the DNLSE, we get two kinds of rogue waves of the VCDNLSE by this transformation. One kind of rogue wave has vanishing boundary condition, and the other non-vanishing boundary condition. The DI of the VCDNLSE also provides a possible way to control the profile of the rogue wave in physical experiments.

Abstract:
In this paper, we give a unified construction of the recursion operators from the Lax representation for three integrable hierarchies: Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP), modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (mKP) and Harry-Dym under $n$-reduction. This shows a new inherent relationship between them. To illustrate our construction, the recursion operator are calculated explicitly for $2$-reduction and $3$-reduction.