Abstract:
We study the density of states in graphene at high magnetic field, when the physics is dominated by strong correlations between electrons. In particular we use the method of Haldane pseudopotentials to focus on almost empty or almost filled Landau levels. We find that, besides the usual Landau level peaks, additional peaks ("sashes") appear in the spectrum. The energies of these peaks are determined by the strength of Haldane's pseudopotentials, but as opposed to the usual two-dimensional gas, when there is a one-to-one correspondence between a Haldane pseudopotential and a peak in the spectrum, the energy of each peak is determined in general by a combination of more than one pseudopotential values. An eventual measure of these peak in the density of states spectrum of graphene would allow one to determine the value of the pseudopotentials in graphene, and thus test the strength of the interactions in this system.

Abstract:
We study the ground state properties of an ABA-stacked trilayer graphene. The low energy band structure can be described by a combination of both a linear and a quadratic particle-hole symmetric dispersions, reminiscent of monolayer- and bilayer-graphene, respectively. The multi-band structure offers more channels for instability towards ferromagnetism when the Coulomb interaction is taken into account. Indeed, if one associates a pseudo-spin 1/2 degree of freedom to the bands (parabolic/linear), it is possible to realize also a band-ferromagnetic state, where there is a shift in the energy bands, since they fill up differently. By using a variational procedure, we compute the exchange energies for all possible variational ground states and identify the parameter space for the occurrence of spin- and band-ferromagnetic instabilities as a function of doping and interaction strength.

Abstract:
We study the time evolution of a two-dimensional quantum particle exhibiting an energy spectrum, made of two bands, with two Dirac cones, as e.g. in the band structure of a honeycomb lattice. A force is applied such that the particle experiences two Landau-Zener transitions in succession. The adiabatic evolution between the two transitions leads to St\"uckelberg interferences, due to two possible trajectories in energy space. In addition to well-known dynamical and Stokes phases, the interference pattern reveals a geometric phase which depends on the chirality (winding number) and the mass sign associated to each Dirac cone, as well as on the type of trajectory (parallel or diagonal with respect to the two cones) in parameter space. This geometric phase reveals the coupling between the bands encoded in the structure of the wavefunctions.

Abstract:
We show that the dynamics of cold bosonic atoms in a two-dimensional square optical lattice produced by a bichromatic light-shift potential is described by a Bose-Hubbard model with an additional effective staggered magnetic field. In addition to the known uniform superfluid and Mott insulating phases, the zero-temperature phase diagram exhibits a novel kind of finite-momentum superfluid phase, characterized by a quantized staggered rotational flux. An extension for fermionic atoms leads to an anisotropic Dirac spectrum, which is relevant to graphene and high-$T_c$ superconductors.

Abstract:
The internal Josephson oscillations between an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a molecular one are studied for atoms in a square optical lattice subjected to a staggered gauge field. The system is described by a Bose-Hubbard model with complex and anisotropic hopping parameters that are different for each species, i.e., atoms and molecules. When the flux per plaquette for each species is small, the system oscillates between two conventional zero-momentum condensates. However, there is a regime of parameters in which Josephson oscillations between a vortex-carrying atomic condensate (finite momentum BEC) and a conventional zero-momentum molecular condensate may be realized. The experimental observation of the oscillations between these qualitatively distinct BEC's is possible with state-of-the-art Ramsey interference techniques.

Abstract:
A time-dependent optical lattice with staggered particle current in the tight-binding regime was considered that can be described by a time-independent effective lattice model with an artificial staggered magnetic field. The low energy description of a single-component fermion in this lattice at half-filling is provided by two copies of ideal two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. The Dirac cones are generally anisotropic and can be tuned by the external staggered flux $\p$. For bosons, the staggered flux modifies the single-particle spectrum such that in the weak coupling limit, depending on the flux $\p$, distinct superfluid phases are realized. Their properties are discussed, the nature of the phase transitions between them is establised, and Bogoliubov theory is used to determine their excitation spectra. Then the generalized superfluid-Mott-insulator transition is studied in the presence of the staggered flux and the complete phase diagram is established. Finally, the momentum distribution of the distinct superfluid phases is obtained, which provides a clear experimental signature of each phase in ballistic expansion experiments.

Abstract:
We study the effect of disorder on the propagation of collective excitations in a disordered Bose superfluid. We incorporate local density depletion induced by strong disorder at the meanfield level, and formulate the transport of the excitations in terms of a screened scattering problem. We show that the competition of disorder, screening, and density depletion induces a strongly non-monotonic energy dependence of the disorder parameter. In three dimensions, it results in a rich localization diagram with four different classes of mobility spectra, characterized by either no or up to three mobility edges. Implications on experiments with disordered ultracold atoms are discussed.

Abstract:
Bloch oscillations are a powerful tool to investigate spectra with Dirac points. By varying band parameters, Dirac points can be manipulated and merged at a topological transition towards a gapped phase. Under a constant force, a Fermi sea initially in the lower band performs Bloch oscillations and may Zener tunnel to the upper band mostly at the location of the Dirac points. The tunneling probability is computed from the low energy universal Hamiltonian describing the vicinity of the merging. The agreement with a recent experiment on cold atoms in an optical lattice is very good.

Abstract:
Inspired by recent experiments with cold atoms in optical lattices, we consider a St\"uckelberg interferometer for a particle performing Bloch oscillations in a tight-binding model on the honeycomb lattice. The interferometer is made of two avoided crossings at the saddle points of the band structure (i.e. at M points of the reciprocal space). This problem is reminiscent of the double Dirac cone St\"uckelberg interferometer that was recently studied in the continuum limit [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 155302 (2014)]. Although the two problems share similarities -- such as the appearance of a geometric phase shift -- lattice effects, not captured by the continuum limit, make them truly different. The particle dynamics in the presence of a force is described by the Bloch Hamiltonian $H(\boldsymbol{k})$ defined from the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the position operator. This leads to many interesting effects for the lattice St\"uckelberg interferometer: a twisting of the two Landau-Zener tunnelings, saturation of the inter-band transition probability in the sudden (infinite force) limit and extended periodicity or even non-periodicity beyond the first Brillouin zone. In particular, St\"uckelberg interferometry gives access to the overlap matrix of cell-periodic Bloch states thereby allowing to fully characterize the geometry of Bloch states, as e.g. to obtain the quantum metric tensor.

Abstract:
Motivated by a recent experiment in a tunable graphene analog [L. Tarruell et al., Nature 483, 302 (2012)], we consider a generalization of the Landau-Zener problem to the case of a quadratic crossing between two bands in the vicinity of the merging transition of Dirac cones. The latter is described by the so-called universal hamiltonian. In this framework, the inter-band tunneling problem depends on two dimensionless parameters: one measures the proximity to the merging transition and the other the adiabaticity of the motion. Under the influence of a constant force, the probability for a particle to tunnel from the lower to the upper band is computed numerically in the whole range of these two parameters and analytically in different limits using (i) the Stueckelberg theory for two successive linear band crossings, (ii) diabatic perturbation theory, (iii) adiabatic perturbation theory and (iv) a modified Stueckelberg formula. We obtain a complete phase diagram and explain the presence of unexpected probability oscillations in terms of interferences between two poles in the complex time plane. We also compare our results to the above mentioned experiment.