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The Libyan Revolution: Philosophical Interpretations  [PDF]
Godwin Okaneme
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.51004
Abstract: Libya, one of the notable African countries was engulfed in political crisis in February 2011. The protests were targeted towards the draconian rule of one of Africa’s longest reigning despots, Muammar Gaddafi who ruled Libya for forty two years without showing any sign of relinquishing power until the avoidable bloody uprisings eventually claimed his life. This paper chronicles the Libyan revolution and X-rays its philosophical importance. It is of the strong view that the greatest political challenge facing many African countries today (including Libya) is the inability of its political leaders to see politics as an opportunity to render selfless service to the masses through political governance. This singularly accounts for the reason behind so many unfortunate dictatorial tendencies in governance in some of these African countries. The issue of sit-tightism in office as aptly exemplified by Gaddafi is indeed a worrisome development not only to Libya but also to some other African countries that share the same unfortunate and better forgotten political experience with her. The paper strongly believes that the Libyan revolution should indeed serve as a serious warning signal to other African leaders who share Gaddafi’s retrogressive leadership philosophy of holding tenaciously to power to the detriment of their countries and their helpless citizens whom they hold in brazen perpetual political captivity.
A Spaniard’s Testimony from Libya: an interview of Eloy Pardo with Leonor Massanet
Eloy Pardo; Leonor Massanet
International Journal of Inclusive Democracy , 2011,
Abstract: IJID Note: As this interview took place just before the launching of the NATO military attack against Libya at the end of March, it can be taken as a third party’s testimony reflecting the feelings of most of Libyan people just before the western aggression.Leonor’s note: First of all, I want to note that my testimony is my personal opinion and I don't have any economic or political interests. My only wish is to talk about the country and about the people who live in it because I think there's a lot of ignorance about it. In fact, all the mass media information is being focused on a particular man (Gaddafi) in a very biased way.
An interview with Diana from Libya
International Journal of Inclusive Democracy , 2011,
Abstract: IJID Note:The interviewer will be referred below as JR and the interviewee as DL. Both the interviewer as well as the interviewee preferred not to reveal publicly their names for security reasons.JR’s Notes:In the 1980s, when Gaddafi’s policies veered to the left and nationalization of the economy became widespread, Diana father’s business was severely affected. So her own background is not what one might expect of someone who now is speaking up passionately against the NATO assault on Libya…Unfortunately, most mainstream western journalists seem interested only in hearing from anti-Gaddafi Libyans. So it is the fact that westerners continue to get a one-sided picture of Libya which helps support the case for NATO bombing. Here’s another side to the story…
The Obama doctrine, the transnational elite and the NATO attack on Libya – A Commentary
John Sargis
International Journal of Inclusive Democracy , 2011,
Abstract: The present war against Libya being carried out by the transnational political and economic elite, certified through their UN office and implemented by the US and NATO militaries, sends the message that the “civilized” world will especially not tolerate a regime which does not do as ordered. The run-up to the aggression against Libya initiates the “Obama doctrine” where America will no longer launch a war alone, but will lead the effort with its international partners to depose outdated friendly and unfriendly dictators. In fact, the Obama doctrine only recognizes formally the existence of a transnational elite and not just of an American Empire, as the reformist Left still talks about. The war declared on Libya to supposedly protect the Libyan people in fact aims to protect the interests and values of capitalist neoliberal globalization and to exploit untapped growth throughout the region. Libya is being forcibly integrated into the globalized market economy and the New World Order administered by the transnational elite (roughly the G7 and the international institutions controlled by it).
The political transformation of Libya under Qadhafi
B. Haghebaert
Afrika Focus , 1988,
Abstract: In the Third World, the function of political leadership is more pivotal than in western countries. The subjective factor of Qadhafi has vital bearing on developments in Libya. There was no historical neccessity for Libya to have developed along the revolutionary path that it has. The formation of the Arab Socialist Union, the Popular Revolution, the creation of the Jamahiriya, the inauguration of the Revolutionary Committee movement and the programme of militarisation - all these issues are a result of Qadhafi's wish to "revolutionarize" Libyan society. His ultimate aim was to eliminate all intermediaries between the people and the political power. In practice, real power remained in the hands of Qadhafi and the Revolutionary Committees . A drastic fall in oil revenues and the arrogance and arbitrariness of Qadhafi1s revolutionary zealots led to growing discontent among the Libyan population. The American raid on Tripoli and Benghazi in April 1986 was meant to precipitate Qadhafi1s downfall. But his regime was not overthrown and the Libyan leader proved to be a master of political survival. A (temporary) political and economic liberalisation has boosted his popularity. On the eve of the twentieth anniversary of the Libyan revolution, his position still seems to be secure.
A short introduction to historical earthquakes in Libya
A. S. Suleiman,P. Albini,P. Migliavacca
Annals of Geophysics , 2004, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3320
Abstract: As a result of the relative motion of the African and European plates, Libya, located at the north central margin of the African continent, has experienced a considerable intraplate tectonism, particularly in its northern coastal regions. If the seismic activity of the last fifty years, at most, is known from instrumental recording, macroseismic effects of those earthquakes which affected Libya in the past centuries are still imperfectly known. To try and partly overcome this lack of information, in this contribution we present a short introduction to historical earthquakes in Libya, focusing on the period up to 1935. According to the studies published in the last twenty years, the earliest records of earthquakes in Libya are documented in the Roman period (3rd and 4th century A.D.). There is a gap in information along the Middle and Modern Ages, while the 19th and early 20th century evidence is concentrated on effects in Tripoli, in the western part of nowadays Libya. The Hun Graben area (western part of the Gulf of Sirt) has been identified as the location of many earthquakes affecting Libya, and it is in this area that the 19 April 1935 earthquake (Mw = 7.1) struck, followed by many aftershocks. Further investigations are needed, and some hints are here given at historical sources potentially reporting on earthquake effects in Libya. Their investigation could result in the needed improvement to lay the foundations of a database and a catalogue of the historical seismicity of Libya.
Archaeologists and earthquakes: the case of 365 A.D.
A. Di Vita
Annals of Geophysics , 1995, DOI: 10.4401/ag-4097
Abstract: Archaeological evidence of an earthquake in the second half of the 7th century A.D. on Crete is described and the 365 A.D. cruniversaln earthquake problem is resumed. Some general probleins regarding the study of seismic effects on archaeology in the Mediten-anean area are presented. A few imbalances are indicated due to the lack of an effective collaboration between technical experts and historians.
A Cyrenaica earthquake post 364 A.D.: written sources and archaeological evidences
L. Bacchielli
Annals of Geophysics , 1995, DOI: 10.4401/ag-4098
Caves and Karsts of Northeast Africa.
Halliday William R.
International Journal of Speleology , 2003,
Abstract: At least potentially karstifiable rocks cover much of the surface of Egypt and northern Libya. Study of caves and other karstic features of this region has been hampered by lack of roads, rapid disintegration of the surface of friable, poorly consolidated limestone, wind-blown sand and other factors. Interbedding with marly aquicludes hampers speleogenesis locally. Calcareous and evaporite karsts are present, however, and their waters are important albeit generally limited resources. Large quantities of fresh water are lost through submarine springs downslope from Libya’s Gebel al Akhdar range; the caves and karst of that range may be among the world’s greatest. A recent attempted compendium of caves and karsts of Egypt and Libya contains several important errors; the supposed 5+ km Ain Zayanah Cave does not exist and the Zayanah System includes several smaller caves. The Bir al Ghanam gypsum karst of northwest Libya, however, has caves up to 3.5 km long. In Egypt, the Mokattam, South Galala, Ma’aza, Siwa and Western Desert karsts and the “White Desert” chalk karst of Farafra Depression are especially important. Qattara and nearby depressions may be karstic rather than structural in origin. Unique Wadi Sannur Cave is the world’s largest gour and a potential World Heritage site. Little knownsandstone karsts or pseudokarsts in southwestern Egypt may contain analogues of features recently identified on Mars. The well-publicised Uweinat caves of northwestern Sudan are talus caves.
Toxicity of Heavy Metals and Microbial Analysis of Soil Samples Collected from the Area around Zliten Cement Factory  [PDF]
Abdulmajeed Bashir Mlitan, Adel Imhemed Alajtal, Abdullah Mohamed Alsadawy
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2013.21004
Abstract: Soil samples were collected from and around Zliten cement factory, Zliten town, Libya. Soil metals and microbial contents were determined. The results obtained for the examined physiochemical characteristics of soil in the area studied prove that cement dust from the Zliten cement factory inLibyahas had a significant impact on the soil. The affected soil properties are pH and total calcium content. These characteristics were found to be higher than those in similar soils from the same area (unpolluted). The increment of soil pH in the same area may be a result of precipitation of cement dust over the years. Metal uptake from cement to plants and soil then affects organisms’ bodies, a fact that seems to be reflected in this study. Different responses were found in each site. For instance, the dominance of fungi of soil was lowest at100 mfrom the factory and the evenness and diversity increased at this site compared to300 mfrom the factory and the control area.
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