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This paper analyzes how inside trading affects managers’ decision-making and also examines the effect of the social relations on managers. Through model analysis, the paper shows that inside trading does affect managers’ behavior. Inside trading lowers the managers’ minimum requirements for risky projects and thus has a risk-reduction effect on managers. In some cases, the existence of inside trading makes managers select projects with negative returns, which results in agency problems. When managers try to consolidate their social networks by divulging inside information, agency problems are exacerbated. This paper also analyzes the degree of risk aversion. As the degree of a manager’s risk aversion increases, the risk-reduction effect of inside trading is reduced.
Apple bull’s eye rot is caused by pathogenic Neofabraea species including N. malicorticis, N. perennans and N. alba. Fruits carrying this fungal quarantine disease are prohibited from entering China. The host plants for the pathogens include several Rosaceae fruits including apple and pear. Disease symptoms and pathogen morphology are often insufficient to determine the identity of the pathogen, particularly at the species level. In the current study, we analyzed the inter-species sequence variations in the β-tublin gene, and designed specific primers to allow PCR amplification of 554 bp fragments from pathogenic Neofabraea species. The PCR products were recovered and sequenced, and Blast search was conducted using the DNA sequences in the Genbank database. The results indicated precise PCR amplification of the target sequences from the host pathogen, which allowed unambiguous identification of the species.
predator-prey system with time delay in a two-patch environment is
investigated. By using a continuation theorem based on coincidence degree
theory, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence of periodic
solution for the system.
We proposed a kind of doubly periodic Riemann boundary value problem on
two parallel curves. By using the method of complex functions, we investigated
the method for solving this kind of doubly periodic Riemann boundary value
problem of normal type and gave the general solutions and the solvable
conditions for it.