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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 544 matches for " Lessa "
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Rituais de sacrifício: a sobrevivência de uma antiga dimens?o do corpo humano
Lessa, Andrea;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702007000300012
Abstract: the power of tradition is capable of preserving customs that go counter to the social and cultural trends in today's urban centers. though customs such as rites of sacrifice are often condemned by society and have undergone an adaptive syncretism, they still preserve ancient traditional elements that underline their importance as mediators between the natural and supernatural worlds. a good example of this is the tinku ritual fight, identified in samples of pre-columbian skeletons from the atacama desert in chile, which continues to this day amongst andean groups, having survived for at least 1,200 years. the main objective in this fight is that the participants bleed to death as offerings to the divinity, pachamama, to assure the fertility of the land and the animals. when rites of sacrifice are understood as symbols of social identity, they give us a better understanding of the ethos of past and present societies, from a very particular perspective.
Arqueologia da agressividade humana: a violência sob uma perspectiva paleoepidemiológica
Lessa, Andrea;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702004000200004
Abstract: acute traumatic injuries provide direct evidence that is used in studies of violence in the past. when analyzed from a paleo-epidemiological perspective and in conjunction with data from the material culture, these injuries are an important tool in the interpretation of human aggressive behavior. the latter, which seems to underlie human nature itself, has been recorded as far back as the remote time of man's ancestral hominids and in any type of social organization. by studying the pattern and distribution of blow marks and other signs of physical aggression, we contribute to our understanding not only of the emergence, use, motives, and impact of violence down through time but also of its continuance today.
Na??o e nacionalismo a partir da experiência brasileira
Lessa, Carlos;
Estudos Avan?ados , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-40142008000100016
Abstract: this essay aims to analyze both nation and nationalism concepts according to the viewpoint of brazilian experience, from colonial roots to our times, from national state?s birth to the settlement of the nation and national self-stee. the main historical landmarks happen with few preliminary traumas and are "conservative-zed". productive forces develop dynamically; demographic expansion and territory occupation continue as society changes and new groups emerge; however, large population segments keep excluded from the welfare economic development should provide. natives' self-perception is rather cyclothymical. both popular and elite?s culture provide the keys to understand the mutations of national thinking about brazil, as well as many other features that develop from those two concepts.
O experimento Bayle: forma filosófica, ceticismo, cren?a e configura??o do mundo humano
Lessa, Renato;
Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-512X2009000200013
Abstract: o artigo tem por objetivo principal definir o que designa como o experimento bayle. bayle praticou uma forma narrativa aberta, construída como diálogo do autor com seus personagens, e marcada pela recusa de um espírito geométrico. tal recusa formal da geometriza??o, por seu lado, é fundamental para o desenvolvimento, em bayle, de uma percep??o da história e da política como domínios constituídos por uma miríade incontável de a??es humanas fundadas sobre paix?es e cren?as. o artigo tenta buscar alguns tra?os dessa percep??o entre os textos dedicados por bayle a maquiavel, bodin e hobbes, no seu dicionário, assim como nas críticas dirigidas por montesquieu a bayle, a propósito do ateísmo e da desvaloriza??o moral do cristianismo.
Da interpreta??o à ciência: por uma história filosófica do conhecimento político no Brasil
Lessa, Renato;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 2011,
Abstract: the essay deals with a dissimilarity, current in the field of brazilian political reflection, between two different perspectives: one presented as scientifically founded, the other defined as marked by interpretation. such a contrast leads to a denial that the interpretive branch - dubbed as "brazilian political thought" or as "brazilian's interpretations" - may generate possible cognitive effects. moreover, the authors that belong to this variant are regularly assumed by analysts more as objects to be explained than as cognitive inspiration. on the other hand, the aim to accomplish objective and exact knowledge on political matters, as affirmed by the "scientific" variant from the 1980's on, is determined by the desire to be free from the inherent limits and predicaments of interpretive efforts. the process is affected by an ongoing transfiguration of the object of political reflection and of the whole field of political knowledge altogether, supposed to be marked by strong uniqueness. the affirmation of such a singularity leads to a continuous effort of distinction towards the traditional procedures and assumptions of the field of humanities and social sciences.
Trends in Productive Years of Life Lost to Premature Mortality Due to Coronary Heart Disease
Lessa, Ines;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2002001500007
Abstract: objective: to estimate the number of productive years of life lost to premature death due to coronary heart disease in brazil and to report their trends over a 20-year period. methods: the brazilian ministry of health raw database on death due to coronary heart disease from 1979-1998 was used. the productive years of life lost to premature death were estimated using 20 and 59 years of age as the cut points for the productive years, replacing the potential years of 1 and 70 of the original formula. a descriptive analysis was provided with adjustments, means, proportions, ratios, percentages of increase or reduction, and mobile means. results: a 35.8% increase in death for males and 51.3% for females was observed, +43.3% being the relative difference for females. the annual means of the productive years of life prematurely lost were analyzed in 140,865 males and 58,559 females, with the differential ratio between the age groups ranging from 2.3 to 2.5. the annual means were less favorable for males. within each group (intragroup), the ratios decreased with the increase in age, and the age means at the time of death remained constant. the raw tendencies decreased in the 20- to 29-year age group and increased in the 40- to 59-year age group for females and the 40- to 49-year age group for males. when adjusted, the raw tendencies decreased. conclusion: the 43.3% increase in the number of female deaths as compared with that of males and the ascending tendency in the productive years of life lost in the 40- to 59-year age group point to the influence of unfavorable changes in female lifestyles and suggest a deficiency in programs for prevention and control of risk factors and in their treatment in both sexes.
Medical care and deaths due to coronary artery disease in Brazil, 1980-1999
Lessa, Ines;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2003001200001
Abstract: objective: to estimate the frequency of medical care preceding deaths due to coronary artery diseases (cad) in different brazilian regions and capitals and to describe trends in medical care from 1980 to 1999. methods: information on medical care preceding deaths due to coronary artery diseases/acute myocardial infarction in adults > 20 years from 1980 to 1999 was collected in the datasus, the databank of the brazilian health ministry. sex, states, and capitals selected for 1999 were analyzed in the study. medical care was stratified as follows: with, without, and ignored medical care. the descriptive analysis comprised frequencies, ratios of frequency, test for proportions, and increments or reductions in frequencies. results: acute myocardial infarction (ami) represented 75 to 85% of the cad in the period; the frequency of deaths with medical care ranged from 48.9 to 63%, and that of ignored medical care ranged from 27.2 to 41.5%. the frequency of other cad with medical care ranged from 56 to 76%. the frequency of deaths preceded by medical care decreased by 17.8%, and that with ignored medical care increased by 36.5% (rf=2). the values for the other cad were -20.2% and +64.6% (rf=44.4). deaths preceded by medical care were more frequent in females at all ages and in all brazilian regions. conclusion: the results show a high frequency of sudden death and suggest errors in diagnosis or codification and overestimation of the statistics about mortality. validation of the death certificate diagnosis and frequent surveillance are required.
Aspectos sociais da mortalidade precoce (15 a 59 anos) por doen?as cerebrovasculares
Lessa, Ines;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 1990, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X1990000300005
Abstract: the loss of productive years for premature death (15-59 years) due to cerebrovascular diseases (cvd) was estimated on the basis of official mortality statistics for brasil, 1985. estimations were made for the 5 macro-regions of the country - north, northeast, southeast, south and midwest, as well as for selected capital cities located in each of the regions, respectively: belém, salvador, s?o paulo, porto alegre and brasilia. men lost 158,194 years of productive life while the loss for women was 128,905 years. the average of years lost/person varied between 11.5 (south) and 13.4 (midwest) for males and between 12.9 (north) and 14.1 (midwest) for females. the proportions of productive years lost were greater for women in all five regions. in the capital cities, the average loss of years were similar to the respective macro-regions, although for salvador there was an increase for both genders as compared to the northeast. the social costs of such premature deaths is then discussed, estimating a potential reduction of 200,000 years from the total losses, in case of treatment and control of high blood pressure in the brazilian population.
Transforma??es e continuidades nos programas de bem-estar social no Canadá
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232007000600015
Abstract: poor mothers and their families constitute a core dilemma for a social welfare system that aims primarily to encourage and keep workers in the labor force. public income transfers to these and other marginalized groups may be viewed as disincentives to seek paid work and have been characterized in canada by stinginess and contradictions since the beginning of the xx century. this paper discusses recent transformations in these programs and their effects on families and individuals. focusing specifically on poor mothers raising children alone, it argues that many gradual cuts and reshaping these programs have changed the character of the social welfare state in canada, blocking escape routes from poverty for marginalized groups.
Doen?as cr?nicas n?o-transmissíveis no Brasil: um desafio para a complexa tarefa da vigilancia
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232004000400014
Abstract: there is a scarcity of literature in the field of public health with regard to the surveillance of non-communicable diseases but there are various proposals for programs and various networks in operation throughout the 5 continents. the subject is in debate all over the world not only because cardiovascular disease is now the leading cause of death in most countries, but because of what is already being considered a pandemic of obesity, including children and adolescents. the diabetes endemic is expected. in brazil the situation is serious. the population is aging fast and this rapidly accentuates the importance of obesity and diabetes as a public health issue. healthcare up to now has been curative. however, this does not de facto and de jure assure the uninterrupted treatment of ncd within the basic healthcare system. the text presented gives a summary of the ncd surveillance in general and comments on the stepwise approach to ncd surveillance proposed by the world health organization for the emerging countries as brazil. to have this proposal accepted, a critical analysis of the secondary data available in brazil and mentioned in the proposal is necessary. methodologically standardized primary data with an emphasis on risk factors should also be produced within a short timeframe.
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