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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 220673 matches for " Leslie C.; "
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Courtship Initiation Is Stimulated by Acoustic Signals in Drosophila melanogaster
Aki Ejima, Leslie C. Griffith
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003246
Abstract: Finding a mating partner is a critical task for many organisms. It is in the interest of males to employ multiple sensory modalities to search for females. In Drosophila melanogaster, vision is thought to be the most important courtship stimulating cue at long distance, while chemosensory cues are used at relatively short distance. In this report, we show that when visual cues are not available, sounds produced by the female allow the male to detect her presence in a large arena. When the target female was artificially immobilized, the male spent a prolonged time searching before starting courtship. This delay in courtship initiation was completely rescued by playing either white noise or recorded fly movement sounds to the male, indicating that the acoustic and/or seismic stimulus produced by movement stimulates courtship initiation, most likely by increasing the general arousal state of the male. Mutant males expressing tetanus toxin (TNT) under the control of Gr68a-GAL4 had a defect in finding active females and a delay in courtship initiation in a large arena, but not in a small arena. Gr68a-GAL4 was found to be expressed pleiotropically not only in putative gustatory pheromone receptor neurons but also in mechanosensory neurons, suggesting that Gr68a-positive mechanosensory neurons, not gustatory neurons, provide motion detection necessary for courtship initiation. TNT/Gr68a males were capable of discriminating the copulation status and age of target females in courtship conditioning, indicating that female discrimination and formation of olfactory courtship memory are independent of the Gr68a-expressing neurons that subserve gustation and mechanosensation. This study suggests for the first time that mechanical signals generated by a female fly have a prominent effect on males' courtship in the dark and leads the way to studying how multimodal sensory information and arousal are integrated in behavioral decision making.
Comportamiento electoral y democracia en Nicaragua: 1990-2001
Leslie ANDERSON,Lawrence C. DODD
América Latina Hoy , 2009,
Abstract: RESUMEN: En los Estados Unidos y otros países de democracia establecida existen teorías de opción electoral (vote choice) para explicar cómo y por qué los votantes toman decisiones electorales. éstas nos explican cómo votan los ciudadanos, incluso qué peso dan a las evaluaciones de los candidatos, la económica, y otros factores en sus decisiones de voto. Conforme América Latina se democratiza y algunas naciones en el continente cuentan con varios a os de continuidad electoral, surgen preguntas con respecto a la relevancia de teorías electorales desarrolladas en las democracias más antiguas para el análisis del contexto de las nuevas democracias. Particularmente, si ciudadanos de naciones pobres que carecen de las ventajas asociadas a la riqueza económica, educación y cobertura extensiva a través de la televisión, presentan patrones de conducta electoral reconociblemente similares a aquéllos presentes en las democracias más antiguas. Este estudio aplica dos teorías electorales de las democracias antiguas a un contexto donde la democracia es nueva: Nicaragua. éstas son la teoría de retrospección (Fiorina) y la teoría de prospección (Sniderman, Tetlock, Brody). El artículo muestra que, no obstante su pobreza y el bajo nivel educativo de muchos de sus habitantes, en las tres últimas elecciones los nicaragüenses tenían una capacidad de voto que sigue las dos teorías. Además, los votantes nicaragüenses pensaron no solamente en los candidatos y la economía sino también en el tipo de régimen, una cuestión que nunca se presentaría en Estados Unidos o en otras democracias antiguas. Los menos educados se mostraron tan capaces de utilizar prospección como los más educados. A pesar de la poca antigüedad de la democracia nicaragüense y de la relativa inexperiencia de su población, hemos descubierto una importante evidencia de la utilización de procesos evaluativos retrospectivos y prospectivos en Nicaragua en las elecciones para las cuales contamos con información estadística. La conducta electoral desarrollada para democracias establecidas es también válida para las nuevas democracias, lo cual tiene fuertes implicaciones para la democratización. ? ABSTRACT: Voting studies in the United States and other established democracies offer vote choice theories to explain how and why voters make electoral decisions. These theories explain what weight voters give to evaluations of candidates, the economy and other factors in making their decisions. As Latin America has democratized and some nations of that continent have now had several years of electoral continuity, the quest
A Simulation Based Performance Comparison Study of Stability-Based Routing, Power-Aware Routing and Load-Balancing On-Demand Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Natarajan Meghanathan,Leslie C. Milton
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: The high-level contribution of this paper is a simulation-based detailed performance comparison of three different classes of on-demand routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: stability-based routing, power-aware routing and load-balanced routing. We choose the Flow-Oriented Routing protocol (FORP), Min-Max Battery Cost Routing (MMBCR) and the traffic interference based Load Balancing Routing (LBR) protocol as representatives of the stability-based routing, poweraware routing and load-balancing routing protocols respectively. FORP incurs the least number of route transitions; while LBR incurs the smallest hop count and lowest end-to-end delay per data packet. Energy consumed per data packet is the least for LBR, closely followed by MMBCR. FORP incurs the maximum energy consumed per data packet, both in the absence and presence of power control. Nevertheless, in the presence of power control, the end-to-end delay per data packet and energy consumed per data packet incurred by FORP are significantly reduced compared to the scenario without power control. MMBCR is the most fair in terms of node usage and incurs the largest time for first node failure. FORP tends to repeatedly use nodes lying on the stable path and hence is the most unfair of the three routing protocols. FORP also incurs the smallest value for the time of first node failure.
Penicillin tolerance among Beta-hemolytic streptococci and production of the group carbohydrates, hemolysins, hyaluronidases and deoxyribonucleases
Avelino, Cássia C.;Benchetrit, Leslie C.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761995000400021
Abstract: penicillin tolerance among 67 strains of beta-hemolytic streptococci was examined by determining the ratio of the minimal bactericidal concentration to the minimal inhibitory concentration as 32 or greater. tolerance was demonstrated in 15 group a strains and in 11,7, and 4 of groups b, c and g, respectively. thereafter the effects of a subminimal inhibitory concentration (1/2mic) of penicillin on the bacterial products of four tolerant and four nontolerant strains (two of each lancefield group) were analyzed and compared. the antibiotic caused a marked increase in the expression of the group carbo-hydrates for strains of group b. penicillin was found to reduce the cell-bound hemolysin activities of the four tolerant strains and to increase the activity of the other (free) form of nontolerant groups a, c and g hemolysins. penicillin caused an increase in the extracellular hyaluronidase activities of one group a and groups b, c and g streptococci. with added antibiotic the production of deoxyribonuclease by tolerant groups a, c and g was greatly enhanced and that of the group b streptococcus was arrested.
Efectos de las intervenciones del farmacéutico en pacientes polimedicados
Chumney,Elinor C.; Robinson,Leslie C.;
Pharmacy Practice (Granada) , 2006, DOI: 10.4321/S1885-642X2006000300001
Abstract: polypharmacy, the state of being prescribed or taking more medications than clinically appropriate, can result in a variety of negative outcomes for both patients and healthcare facilities. these include negative outcomes such as adverse drug effects, hospitalizations, and poor patient health, as well as economic outcomes such as increased drug cost and costs associated with increased utilization of health services. available data suggests pharmacists have the potential to have a large effect in combating this problem through a variety of interventions such as reducing the number of medications taken, reducing the number of doses taken, increasing patient adherence, preventing adverse drug reactions (adrs), improving patient quality of life and decreasing facility and drug costs. a small number of studies have been performed on the pharmacists? role in addressing the problem of polypharmacy; however, they include various populations, settings, and measured outcomes. furthermore, some of the results are conflicting. nonetheless, this review of the available literature concludes that pharmacist interventions can improve patient outcomes. with the ever-increasing costs of healthcare, the substantial cost savings for patients as well as institutions provided by these interventions are further justification for widespread implementation of pharmacist interventions at healthcare institutions.
Taijin-Kyofu-Sho: A subtype of social anxiety  [PDF]
Leslie Lim
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.34042
Abstract:

Taijin-Kyofu-Sho (TKS) has long been considered as a Japanese culture-bound form of social anxiety disorder, although subsequent case-reports from countries outside Japan have dispelled this notion. There are subtle yet distinct differences between TKS and DSM-defined social anxiety disorder (SAD). For instance, the TKS subject fears causing offence to others, whereas the SAD subject is more fearful of causing embarrassment to him/herself. Four sub-categories of TKS have been recognised of which the Jikoshu-kyofu variety resembles the olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) known to Western psychiatrists. There are two TKS subtypes, general (or simple) and offensive (delusional). The general subtype resembles social anxiety disorder, whereas the offensive subtype is characterised by delusions. True community-wide prevalence is unknown, although clinic studies estimate between 7.8% to 45.5% patients have a diagnosis of TKS, with a slight male preponderance. Cultural and societal norms engendering guilt, shame, and embarrassment are likely etiological factors. Treatment may consist of antidepressant and/or antipsychotic medications, while some patients may also benefit from cognitive behavior therapy.

Validation of a Questionnaire to Diagnose the Baumann Skin Type in All Ethnicities and in Various Geographic Locations  [PDF]
Leslie Baumann
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2016.61005
Abstract: The Baumann Skin Typing System diagnoses patients as having one of 16 skin types based on their answers to a validated questionnaire [i] known as the Baumann Skin Type Indicator [ii]. The BSTI questionnaire has been tested over the last decade on over 200,000 people of various ages and ethnicities in different geographic locations around the world. In this study, data were collected from 52,862 patients to compare skin type prevalence between those who presented to doctor’s offices and those who took the quiz without supervision online. The most common skin types varied only slightly between patients that took the quiz online and those that completed the questionnaire in their doctor’s office. This indicates that the prevalence of skin types seen in the doctor’s office is similar to that in the general population and that supervision is not necessary to get an accurate result on the BSTI. [iii] In addition, comparison of data gathered in China, Korea, and the US did not show a significant difference in skin type prevalence between Asian and Caucasian skin types. [iv] This study demonstrates that the English version of the BSTI is valid for English speaking patients online, and in doctors’ offices in the US, China and Korea.
Enhanced immuno-detection of shed extracellular domain of HER-2/neu  [PDF]
Sinang Chourb, Brian C. Mackness, Leslie R. Farris, Melisenda J. McDonald
Health (Health) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/health.2009.14053
Abstract: HER-2/neu oncogene is over-expressed and amplified in patients associated with metastatic breast cancer. An increased level (>15 ng/mL) in the shed extracellular domain (sECD-HER 2/neu) is indicative of the potential presence and as-sociated progression of this disease. A fluo-rescent ELISA incorporating the newly devel-oped ALYGNSA antibody-orientation system revealed a 10-fold increase in sensitivity (≤0.63 ng/mL) of sECD-HER 2/neu when compared to a control standard ELISA kit (≤7.5 ng/mL). This enhanced mode of detection has the potential to not only address breast and other cancers per se but also permit an in depth evaluation of “shed extracellular domains”, in general, and the role of these “proteolytic derived factors” in physiological signalling at normal levels.
A pilot study of exercise in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy
C Lee, William D Leslie, YK Lau
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-103
Abstract: A 12-month prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted to compare the Exercise Group with the Control Group. Sixty men with prostate cancer who will be starting ADT will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of the two groups: the Exercise Group will receive instructions in setting up an individualized 12-month home-based walking exercise program, while the Control Group will receive standard medical advice from the attending physician. A number of outcome measures will be used to assess bone health, physical function, and health-related quality of life. At baseline and 12 months, bone health will be assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At baseline and every 3 months up to 12 months, physical function will be evaluated using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue Scale, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Short Physical Performance Battery, and Six-Minute Walk Test; and health-related quality of life will be assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Prostate Module and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2. A mixed multiple analysis of variance will be used to analyze the data.Musculoskeletal health management remains a challenge in men with prostate cancer receiving ADT. This study addresses this issue by designing a simple and accessible home-based walking exercise program that will potentially have significant impact on reducing the risk of fracture, promoting physical function, and ultimately improving the health-related quality of life in men with prostate cancer receiving ADT.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00834392.Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in North America, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer. There are currently 25,500 men in Canada [1] and over 2.3 million men in the United States who have prostate cancer [2]. Despite apparently localized and hence curable disease at presentation, more than one-third
RBM6-RBM5 transcription-induced chimeras are differentially expressed in tumours
Ke Wang, Gino Ubriaco, Leslie C Sutherland
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-348
Abstract: We identified three novel transcription-induced chimeras resulting from the intergenic splicing of a single RNA transcript incorporating the two neighbouring 3p21.3 tumour suppressor locus genes, RBM6 and RBM5, which encode the RNA Binding Motif protein 6 and RNA Binding Motif protein 5, respectively. Each of the three novel chimeric transcripts lacked exons 3, 6, 20 and 21 of RBM6 and exon 1 of RBM5. Differences between the transcripts were associated with the presence or absence of exon 4, exon 5 and a 17 nucleotide (nt) sequence from intron 10 of RBM6. All three chimeric transcripts incorporated the canonical splice sites from both genes (excluding the 17 nt intron 10 insertion). Differential expression was observed in tumour tissue compared to non-tumour tissue, and amongst tumour types. In breast tumour tissue, chimeric expression was associated with elevated levels of RBM6 and RBM5 mRNA, and increased tumour size. No protein expression was detected by in vitro transcription/translation.These results suggest that RBM6 mRNA experiences altered co-transcriptional gene regulation in certain cancers. The results also suggest that RBM6-RBM5 transcription-induced chimerism might be a process that is linked to the tumour-associated increased transcriptional activity of the RBM6 gene. It appears that none of the transcription-induced chimeras generates a protein product; however, the novel alternative splicing, which affects putative functional domains within exons 3, 6 and 11 of RBM6, does suggest that the generation of these chimeric transcripts has functional relevance. Finally, the association of chimeric expression with breast tumour size suggests that RBM6-RBM5 chimeric expression may be a potential tumour differentiation marker.Transcription-induced chimerism, resulting from the transcription and intergenic splicing of two consecutive genes, was previously thought to be a rare event in mammals. Recent studies, however, incorporating systematic in silico analyses
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