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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461606 matches for " Lesley A. Lace "
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Intraspecific competition in the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria: Effect of rearing density and gender on larval life history
Melanie Gibbs,Lesley A. Lace,Martin J. Jones,Allen J. Moore
Journal of Insect Science , 2004,
Abstract: In insects, the outcome of intraspecific competition for food during development depends primarily upon larval density and larval sex, but effects will also depend on the particular trait under consideration and the species under study. Experimental manipulations of larval densities of a Madeiran population of the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria confirmed that intraspecific competition affected growth. As densities increased P. aegeria adults were smaller and larval development periods were longer. Sexes responded differently to rearing density. Females were more adversely affected by high density than males, resulting in females having smaller masses at pupation. Survivorship was significantly higher for larvae reared at low densities. No density effect on adult sex ratios was observed. Intraspecific competition during the larval stage would appear to carry a higher cost for females than males. This may confer double disadvantage since females are dependent on their larval derived resources for reproduction as they have little opportunity to accumulate additional resources as adults. This suggests that shortages of larval food could affect fecundity directly. Males, however, may be able to compensate for a small size by feeding as adults and/or by altering their mate location tactics.
Prokaryotic Horizontal Gene Transfer in Freshwater Lakes: Implications of Dynamic Biogeochemical Zonation  [PDF]
Christopher N. Drudge, Lesley A. Warren
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.312181
Abstract: The highly adaptive nature of prokaryotic communities in the face of changing environmental conditions reflects in part their ability to share advantageous genetic information through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Natural freshwater lacustrine (lake) systems are a vital and finite resource, and the influence of HGT on their quality (e.g. enabling the spread of antibiotic resistance and xenobiotic catabolism genes) is likely significant. Laboratory and in situ studies indicate that the dynamic physical, chemical, and biological conditions that structure freshwater systems can influence HGT within freshwater prokaryotic communities. Thus, understanding how biogeochemical parameters impact HGT in freshwater lakes is an emerging knowledge gap with potential implications for ecosystem and human health on a global scale. In this review, we provide a general synopsis of what is known about HGT in freshwater prokaryotic communities, followed by an integrated summary of current knowledge identifying how biogeochemical factors may influence prokaryotic HGT in freshwater lacustrine systems.
From Equity to Adequacy: Evolving Legal Theories in School Finance Litigation: The Case of Connecticut
Lesley A. DeNardis
International Journal of Education , 2010, DOI: 10.5296/ije.v2i1.386
Abstract: Since the landmark school finance decision Serrano v. Priest (1971) ruled that California’s reliance on the property tax to finance public schools violated equal protection provisions in state and federal constitutions, a wave of school finance litigation swept the United States. Connecticut followed with Horton v. Meskill (1977) and most recently with CCJEF v. Rell (2005). The Connecticut State Supreme Court has been a key actor in the policy making process concerning school finance reform in Connecticut. This study will trace the history of school finance litigation in Connecticut and the evolving legal theories used to undergird major court cases. The legal theories that have been developed in Connecticut school finance litigation cases over a thirty year time period have mirrored national trends evolving from the utilization of equity claims then turning to adequacy provisions based on state constitutions in an attempt to redress spending inequities. This study will argue that despite the increasing sophistication of legal strategies as well as a broadening coalition of participants and earlier favorable court rulings in sister states, the plaintiffs now face a less hospitable environment towards school finance reform making the outcome of this latest case uncertain. This study will examine the major legal theories advanced in Horton I (1977), Horton III (1985) and CCJEF v. Rell (2008) and conclude by offering some tentative explanations of the jurisprudence of school finance litigation by providing a closer examination of judicial-legislative dynamics and the prospects for reform in Connecticut.
Children with social and emotional difficulties need support from a range of professionals: Preparing professions for integrated working
Lesley A Hughes
International Journal of Emotional Education , 2012,
Abstract: Inclusive education for all children means that teachers are increasingly faced with challenges in managing children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) whose complex needs span a number of professional disciplines, some of which sit outside of education. However, whilst it is recognised that children with SEBD require management and support across a range of professions that include education, health, social and youth services, there is little done to prepare teaching staff for working across professional and organisational boundaries. The evidence of poor communication and team working amongst professions has led to policy changes and guidelines calling for greater coordination in the delivery of services for children and young people. This paper considers how education and training needs to prepare students with the knowledge and skills for collaborative working through interprofessional education (IPE), and draws on adult learning theory and activity theory to frame its direction. In doing so, it demonstrates a model for IPE that can be used to engage students from different disciplines to gain insight into the understanding of the wider issues of SEBD and the roles and responsibilities of the other professions involved. The model is one that enables students to consider the impact the role of others has on their own role, and to reflect on how their role impacts on the role of others.
Alpha 2 Delta (α2δ) Ligands, Gabapentin and Pregabalin: What is the Evidence for Potential Use of These Ligands in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Lesley A. Houghton
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2011.00028
Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habit, and often associates with other gastrointestinal symptoms such as feelings of incomplete bowel movement and abdominal bloating, and extra-intestinal symptoms such as headache, dyspareunia, heartburn, muscle pain, and back pain. It also frequently coexists with conditions that may also involve central sensitization processes, such as fibromyalgia, irritable bladder disorder, and chronic cough. This review examines the evidence to date on gabapentin and pregabalin which may support further and continued research and development of the α2δ ligands in disorders characterized by visceral hypersensitivity, such as IBS. The distribution of the α2δ subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel, possible mechanisms of action, pre-clinical data which supports an effect on motor–sensory mechanisms and clinical evidence that points to potential benefits in patients with IBS will be discussed.
Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Reduces Dose to the Left Ventricle and Proximal Left Anterior Descending Artery during Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancers  [PDF]
Lesley A. Jarvis, Peter G. Maxim, Kathleen C. Horst
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.325087
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze motion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and left ventricle during normal breathing and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). This is a dosimetric study utilizing free-breathing and static DIBH scans from eleven patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer. The anterior-posterior displacement along the length of the LAD was measured in each respiratory phase. Standard treatment plans targeting the whole breast without treatment of the internal mammary lymph nodes were generated and dose to the LAD and LV calculated. Non-uniform movement of the LAD during respiratory maneuvers with the proximal third exhibiting the greatest displacement was observed. In DIBH compared to end-expiration (EP), the mean posterior displacement of the proximal 1/3 of the LAD was 8.99 mm, the middle 1/3 of the artery was 6.37 mm, and the distal 1/3 was 3.27 mm. In end-inspiration (IP) compared to end-expiration the mean posterior displacements of the proximal 1/3 of the LAD was 2.08 mm, the middle 1/3 of the artery was 0.91 mm, and the distal 1/3 was 0.97 mm. Mean doses to the LAD using tangential treatment fields and a prescribed dose of 50.4 Gy were 11.32 Gy in EP, 8.98 Gy in IP, and 3.50 Gy in DIBH. Mean doses to the LV were 2.38 Gy in EP, 2.31 Gy in IP, and 1.24 Gy in DIBH. In conclusion, inspiration and especially DIBH, cause a displacement of the origin and proximal 2/3 of the LAD away from the chest wall, resulting in sparing of the most critical segment of the artery during tangential radiotherapy.
Corporate Governance Best Practice and Stock Performance: Case of CEE Companies
Julia Bistrova,Natalja Lace
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2012,
Abstract: Corporate governance (CG) becomes a very essential factor to consider prior to investing in the company. A number of studies proved its importance on the developed equity markets. However, intuitively corporate governance should gain more importance due to high degree of uncertainty because of the unstable environment. In order to assess the influence of corporate governance quality on Central and Eastern European companies' stock performance, the CG assessment model, which includes 21 evaluation criteria, was developed. Based on the model rating, the companies with the highest CG quality (top 25%) outperformed companies with the worst CG quality (bottom 25%) by 0.98% on a monthly basis during the period of 2008 - 2010. Study demonstrate that companies with good CG quality are able to offer lower risk.
A new class of harmonic measure distribution functions
Ariel Barton,Lesley A. Ward
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: Let D be a planar domain containing 0. Let h_D(r) be the harmonic measure at 0 in D of the part of the boundary of D within distance r of 0. The resulting function h_D is called the harmonic measure distribution function of D. In this paper we address the inverse problem by establishing several sets of sufficient conditions on a function f for f to arise as a harmonic measure distribution function. In particular, earlier work of Snipes and Ward shows that for each function f that increases from zero to one, there is a sequence of multiply connected domains X_n such that h_{X_n} converges to f pointwise almost everywhere. We show that if f satisfies our sufficient conditions, then f = h_D, where D is a subsequential limit of bounded simply connected domains that approximate the domains X_n. Further, the limit domain is unique in a class of suitably symmetric domains. Thus f = h_D for a unique symmetric bounded simply connected domain D.
Autoimmune conditions and hairy cell leukemia: an exploratory case-control study
Lesley A Anderson, Eric A Engels
Journal of Hematology & Oncology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-8722-3-35
Abstract: Using the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Medicare linked database, we conducted an exploratory study comparing autoimmune conditions in 418 HCL cases (aged ≥65 years) and 160,086 controls.Overall, the proportion with autoimmune conditions was similar between HCL cases and controls (n = 79 (18.9%) and n = 29,284 (18.3%), respectively). Before diagnosis/selection, there was no overall difference in the prevalence of autoimmune conditions in HCL cases (n = 37, 8.9%) compared with controls (n = 14,085, 8.8%), p = 0.969. However, compared with controls, HCL cases more frequently had sarcoidosis (OR 9.6, 95%CI 2.4-39.5), Sj?gren syndrome (OR 6.1, 95%CI 2.0-19.3) and erythema nodosum (OR 37, 95%CI 4.9-284) before diagnosis. Autoimmune conditions were also more common in HCL cases than controls around the time of diagnosis/selection (p < 0.001) but not subsequently.The findings do not support an overall relationship between autoimmune conditions and HCL, although the association with some autoimmune conditions prior to HCL diagnosis may warrant further investigation. Our findings also suggest that autoimmune conditions in HCL patients may be detected around the time of diagnosis.Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare, indolent, B-cell neoplasm, accounting for approximately 2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) in the U.S. [1]. Organic solvents and some medical conditions including anemia could be related to development of HCL [2]. Factors affecting the immune system, including autoimmune conditions, are associated with an elevated risk of several other NHL subtypes [3]. Case reports have described the occurrence of autoimmune conditions antecedent to and following diagnosis or treatment of HCL [4-8], suggesting that autoimmune conditions may be associated with this malignancy.Nonetheless, no prior study has systematically assessed associations between a range of autoimmune conditions and HCL. We therefore conducted an exploratory study using linked
Neural Protein Synthesis during Aging: Effects on Plasticity and Memory
Lesley A. Schimanski,Carol A. Barnes
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2010.00026
Abstract: During aging, many experience a decline in cognitive function that includes memory loss. The encoding of long-term memories depends on new protein synthesis, and this is also reduced during aging. Thus, it is possible that changes in the regulation of protein synthesis contribute to the memory impairments observed in older animals. Several lines of evidence support this hypothesis. For instance, protein synthesis is required for a longer period following learning to establish long-term memory in aged rodents. Also, under some conditions, synaptic activity or pharmacological activation can induce de novo protein synthesis and lasting changes in synaptic transmission in aged, but not young, rodents; the opposite results can be observed in other conditions. These changes in plasticity likely play a role in manifesting the altered place field properties observed in awake and behaving aged rats. The collective evidence suggests a link between memory loss and the regulation of protein synthesis in senescence. In fact, pharmaceuticals that target the signaling pathways required for induction of protein synthesis have improved memory, synaptic plasticity, and place cell properties in aged animals. We suggest that a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to different protein expression patterns in the neural circuits that change as a function of age will enable the development of more effective therapeutic treatments for memory loss.
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