Abstract:
We have studied the conductance distribution function of two-dimensional disordered noninteracting systems in the crossover regime between the diffusive and the localized phases. The distribution is entirely determined by the mean conductance, g, in agreement with the strong version of the single-parameter scaling hypothesis. The distribution seems to change drastically at a critical value very close to one. For conductances larger than this critical value, the distribution is roughly Gaussian while for smaller values it resembles a log-normal distribution. The two distributions match at the critical point with an often appreciable change in behavior. This matching implies a jump in the first derivative of the distribution which does not seem to disappear as system size increases. We have also studied 1/g corrections to the skewness to quantify the deviation of the distribution from a Gaussian function in the diffusive regime.

Abstract:
We suggest to use `fluctuation spectroscopy' as a method to detect granularity in a disordered metal close to a superconducting transition. We show that with lowering temperature $T$ the resistance $R(T)$ of a system of relatively large grains initially grows due to the fluctuation suppression of the one-electron tunneling but decreases with further lowering $T$ due to the coherent charge transfer of the fluctuation Cooper pairs. Under certain conditions, such a maximum in $R(T)$ turns out to be sensitive to weak magnetic fields due to a novel Maki -- Thompson type mechanism.

Abstract:
The dependence of the transition temperature $T_g$ in terms of the concentration of magnetic impurities $c$ in spin glasses is explained on the basis of a screened RKKY interaction. The two observed power laws, $T_g ~ c$ at low $c$ and $T_g ~ c^{2/3}$ for intermediate $c$, are described in a unified approach.

Abstract:
We study the quantum corrections to the polarizability of isolated metallic mesoscopic systems using the loop-expansion in diffusive propagators. We show that the difference between connected (grand-canonical ensemble) and isolated (canonical ensemble) systems appears only in subleading terms of the expansion, and can be neglected if the frequency of the external field, $\omega$, is of the order of (or even slightly smaller than) the mean level spacing, $\Delta$. If $\omega \ll \Delta$, the two-loop correction becomes important. We calculate it by systematically evaluating the ballistic parts (the Hikami boxes) of the corresponding diagrams and exploiting electroneutrality. Our theory allows one to take into account a finite dephasing rate, $\gamma$, generated by electron interactions, and it is complementary to the non-perturbative results obtained from a combination of Random Matrix Theory (RMT) and the $\sigma$-model, valid at $\gamma \to 0$. Remarkably, we find that the two-loop result for isolated systems with moderately weak dephasing, $\gamma \sim \Delta$, is similar to the result of the RMT+$\sigma$-model even in the limit $\omega \to 0$. For smaller $\gamma$, we discuss the possibility to interpolate between the perturbative and the non-perturbative results. We compare our results for the temperature dependence of the polarizability of isolated rings to the experimental data of Deblock \emph{et al} [\prl \ {\bf 84}, 5379 (2000); \prb \ {\bf 65}, 075301 (2002)], and we argue that the elusive 0D regime of dephasing might have manifested itself in the observed magneto-oscillations. Besides, we thoroughly discuss possible future measurements of the polarizability, which could aim to reveal the existence of 0D dephasing and the role of the Pauli blocking at small temperatures.

Abstract:
We study dephasing by electron interactions in a small disordered quasi-one dimensional (1D) ring weakly coupled to leads. We use an influence functional for quantum Nyquist noise to describe the crossover for the dephasing time $\Tph (T)$ from diffusive or ergodic 1D ($ \Tph^{-1} \propto T^{2/3}, T^{1}$) to 0D behavior ($\Tph^{-1} \propto T^{2}$) as $T$ drops below the Thouless energy. The crossover to 0D, predicted earlier for 2D and 3D systems, has so far eluded experimental observation. The ring geometry holds promise of meeting this longstanding challenge, since the crossover manifests itself not only in the smooth part of the magnetoconductivity but also in the amplitude of Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations. This allows signatures of dephasing in the ring to be cleanly extracted by filtering out those of the leads.

Abstract:
We analyze dephasing by electron interactions in a small disordered quasi-one dimensional (1D) ring weakly coupled to leads, where we recently predicted a crossover for the dephasing time $\tPh(T)$ from diffusive or ergodic 1D ($\tPh^{-1} \propto T^{2/3}, T^{1}$) to $0D$ behavior ($\tPh^{-1} \propto T^{2}$) as $T$ drops below the Thouless energy $\ETh$. We provide a detailed derivation of our results, based on an influence functional for quantum Nyquist noise, and calculate all leading and subleading terms of the dephasing time in the three regimes. Explicitly taking into account the Pauli blocking of the Fermi sea in the metal allows us to describe the $0D$ regime on equal footing as the others. The crossover to $0D$, predicted by Sivan, Imry and Aronov for 3D systems, has so far eluded experimental observation. We will show that for $T \ll \ETh$, $0D$ dephasing governs not only the $T$-dependence for the smooth part of the magnetoconductivity but also for the amplitude of the Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations, which result only from electron paths winding around the ring. This observation can be exploited to filter out and eliminate contributions to dephasing from trajectories which do not wind around the ring, which may tend to mask the $T^{2}$ behavior. Thus, the ring geometry holds promise of finally observing the crossover to $0D$ experimentally.

Abstract:
We study Johnson-Nyquist noise in macroscopically inhomogeneous disordered metals and give a microscopic derivation of the correlation function of the scalar electric potentials in real space. Starting from the interacting Hamiltonian for electrons in a metal and the random phase approximation, we find a relation between the correlation function of the electric potentials and the density fluctuations which is valid for arbitrary geometry and dimensionality. We show that the potential fluctuations are proportional to the solution of the diffusion equation, taken at zero frequency. As an example, we consider networks of quasi-1D disordered wires and give an explicit expression for the correlation function in a ring attached via arms to absorbing leads. We use this result in order to develop a theory of dephasing by electronic noise in multiply-connected systems.

Abstract:
The water treatment and water disposal generalized technological scheme implemented in a system of water extraction from the subterranean and surface water is represented. The basic units and work principle of a system are described. The main parameters of treatment are presented and a comparison of water treatment methods is done. It is shown that the presented system can be useful for wastes post-treatment

Abstract:
We study a flow of ultracold bosonic atoms through a one-dimensional channel that connects two macroscopic three-dimensional reservoirs of Bose-condensed atoms via weak links implemented as potential barriers between each of the reservoirs and the channel. We consider reservoirs at equal chemical potentials so that a superflow of the quasi-condensate through the channel is driven purely by a phase difference, $2\Phi$, imprinted between the reservoirs. We find that the superflow never has the standard Josephson form $\sim \sin 2\Phi $. Instead, the superflow discontinuously flips direction at $2\Phi =\pm\pi$ and has metastable branches. We show that these features are robust and not smeared by fluctuations or phase slips. We describe a possible experimental setup for observing these phenomena.

Abstract:
It is shown that the distribution functions of the diffusion coefficient are very similar in the standard model of quantum diffusion in a disordered metal and in a model of classical diffusion in a disordered medium: in both cases the distribution functions have lognormal tails, their part increasing with the increase of the disorder. The similarity is based on a similar behaviour of the high-gradient operators determining the high-order cumulants. The one-loop renormalization-group corrections make the anomalous dimension of the operator that governs the $s$-th cumulant proportional to $s(s-1)$ thus overtaking for large $s$ the negative normal dimension. As behaviour of the ensemble-averaged diffusion coefficient is quite different in these models, it suggests that a possible universality in the distribution functions is independent of the behaviour of average quantities.