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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 200643 matches for " Lercher P "
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Bedeutung der Bewegung: Adipositas: Pr vention & Therapie
Lercher P
Journal für Ern?hrungsmedizin , 2012,
Abstract: Trotz verst rkter gesundheitspolitischer Ma nahmen und Medienarbeit in den letzten Jahren verzeichnen wir weiterhin eine Zunahme von übergewicht und Adipositas und den dementsprechenden Folge- und Begleit-erkrankungen wie Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen, Diabetes Mellitus Typ 2, Hypercholesterin mie, Osteoporose, Affektionen des Bewegungsapparates oder gewisse Krebsarten1. Um dieser Entwicklung entgegenwirken zu k nnen, sind weitere gesundheits- und gesellschaftspolitische Ma nahmen erforderlich. Im Kern geht es dabei darum, in unserer von Leistungsdruck und Alltagshektik gepr gten Gesellschaft eine Bewegungskultur zu entwickeln und die Bedeutung des Zusammenspiels von Ern hrung und Bewegung im Sinne der Energiebilanz zu untermauern.
Testosteron bei Patienten mit koronarer Herzkrankheit - ein angiograpisches Langzeit-Follow-up
Lercher P,Aigner R,Eber B,Klein W
Journal für Kardiologie , 1999,
Abstract: Es gibt Hinweise, da Testosteron in direktem Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung und Progression der koronaren Herzkrankheit (KHK) steht, wobei vor allem die Beeinflussung des Lipidmetabolismus dafür verantwortlich zu sein scheint. Mit dieser Studie soll die Frage gekl rt werden, ob zwischen Testosteron, der Progression der KHK und dem Lipidstoffwechsel ein Zusammenhang besteht. 25 m nnliche Patienten mit bekannter KHK wurden retrospektiv in einem 6-Jahres-Follow-up untersucht. Koronarangiographien wurden initial und nach 75 Monaten (Spanne 70 bis 82) durchgeführt. Die Patienten wurden je nach Ausma der Koronararterienprogression drei Gruppen zugeordnet (Gruppe I = geringgradige, Gruppe II = moderate und Gruppe III = schwere Progression). Patienten mit schwerer KHK-Progression zeigten einen signifikant niedrigeren Testosteronspiegel (p = 0,015). Der Plasmatestosteronspiegel korrelierte negativ mit der Arterioskleroseprogression (r = -0,56; p = 0,004). Ein signifikanter Zusammenhang zwischen Testosteron und den Lipidparametern konnte in unserem Patientenkollektiv nicht gezeigt werden, obwohl tendenziell h here Werte von HDL Cholesterin und Apolipoprotein A1 bei Patienten mit h herem Plasmatestosteronspiegel vorlagen. Unsere Daten weisen auf einen direkten Zusammenhang zwischen Testosteron und dem angiographischen Ausma der Koronararterienprogression hin. H here Testosteronwerte scheinen einen "antiatherosklerotischen" Effekt auf die Entwicklung und Progression der koronaren Herzkrankheit zu haben. Patienten mit schwerer KHK und niedrigem Testosteronspiegel k nnten von einer exogenen Testosterongabe profitieren, gr ere Interventionsstudien stehen jedoch noch aus.
Das "Grazer Modell" der Umsetzung von Studienergebnissen und Guidelines zur elektrischen Therapie bei chronischer Herzinsuffizienz
Lercher P,Scherr D,Maier R,Wonisch M
Journal für Kardiologie , 2006,
Abstract: Die Leitlinien zur Behandlung der Herzinsuffizienz lassen für die Ger tetherapie einen gewissen Ermessensspielraum. Im sogenannten "Grazer Modell" wird dieser Spielraum eingeengt. Es werden klare Indikationen für kardiale Resynchronisationstherapie (CRT), implantierbare Kardioverter-Defibrillatoren (ICD) sowie deren Kombination angeführt.
Klinische Studien/Klinische Praxis: Valsartan und Vorhofflimmern: Ein neues Kapitel im Zeitalter der Pleiotropieforschung
Gasser R,Lercher P,Gasser S,Ablasser K
Journal für Kardiologie , 2009,
Abstract:
Klinische Studie/Klinische Praxis: Valsartan und Vorhofflimmern: Ein neues Kapitel im Zeitalter der Pleiotropieforschung
Gasser R,Lercher P,Gasser S,Ablasser K
Journal für Hypertonie , 2009,
Abstract:
Evolution of complex phenotypes through successions of adaptive steps
Tin Y. Pang,Martin Lercher
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: The emergence of complex phenotype is a fascinating question of evolutionary biology, and we sought to understand preadaptation which facilitated the development of complex phenotypes, in the context of bacterial metabolic network. Genes coordinated for a phenotype are likely to cluster on the same place of the genome, which so allows horizontal gene transfer (HGT) to pass the phenotype to another bacterium. But for a complex phenotype, its genes are clustered on different places of the genome cannot be transferred adaptively; it is preadaptation, which refers to adaptive transfer of a segment relevant to a complex phenotype for other purposes, that allows it later to be recruited for the complex phenotype. To search for preadaptation in the evolutionary history of E. coli, we reconstructed the ancestral genomes from various strains, identified the transferred genes, grouped them into possible transferred segments, and analyzed the gains in nutritional phenotypes corresponding to the acquisitions of segments of metabolic genes. Properties of these HGT segments inferred from data are enumerated and compared with a model of HGT, which shows that: 1) HGT segments are likely to adaptive, and segments carrying reactions essential to phenotypic gains but non-adaptive are rare; 2) the landscape of segment transfer for complex phenotypes is directional and path-dependent; 3) cooperation between HGT segments to support various nutritional phenotypes are observed to be more frequent than expected, which serves as an evidence to preadaptation in the evolution of bacterial metabolic network.
The Effects of Network Neighbours on Protein Evolution
Guang-Zhong Wang,Martin J. Lercher
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018288
Abstract: Interacting proteins may often experience similar selection pressures. Thus, we may expect that neighbouring proteins in biological interaction networks evolve at similar rates. This has been previously shown for protein-protein interaction networks. Similarly, we find correlated rates of evolution of neighbours in networks based on co-expression, metabolism, and synthetic lethal genetic interactions. While the correlations are statistically significant, their magnitude is small, with network effects explaining only between 2% and 7% of the variation. The strongest known predictor of the rate of protein evolution remains expression level. We confirmed the previous observation that similar expression levels of neighbours indeed explain their similar evolution rates in protein-protein networks, and showed that the same is true for metabolic networks. In co-expression and synthetic lethal genetic interaction networks, however, neighbouring genes still show somewhat similar evolutionary rates even after simultaneously controlling for expression level, gene essentiality and gene length. Thus, similar expression levels and related functions (as inferred from co-expression and synthetic lethal interactions) seem to explain correlated evolutionary rates of network neighbours across all currently available types of biological networks.
ColorTree: a batch customization tool for phylogenic trees
Wei-Hua Chen, Martin J Lercher
BMC Research Notes , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-2-155
Abstract: In this note, we introduce ColorTree, a simple yet powerful batch customization tool for phylogenic trees. Based on pattern matching rules, ColorTree applies a set of customizations to an input tree file, e.g., coloring labels or branches. The customized trees are saved to an output file, which can then be viewed and further edited by Dendroscope (a freely available tree viewer). ColorTree runs on any Perl installation as a stand-alone command line tool, and its application can thus be easily automated. This way, hundreds of phylogenic trees can be customized for easy visual inspection in a matter of minutes.ColorTree allows efficient and flexible visual customization of large tree sets through the application of a user-supplied configuration file to multiple tree files.Studies in comparative genomics, e.g., analyzing protein family evolution [1-3] or lateral gene transfers [4-7], typically generate large sets of phylogenic trees. Visual inspection of these trees is often necessary, as automated algorithms are not yet sufficiently flexible and reliable [8,9]. The aim of such analyses is often to check for consistency with given null hypotheses (e.g., the clustering of gene copies from known monophyletic groups). This task is often simplified by manual customization of the trees prior to inspection. Customizations usually involve changes of foreground and background colors of specific labels, line-width and color of associated branches, and other aspects of a phylogenic tree. The majority of existing tree viewing programs allow the customization of one or a few opened trees within reasonable time; few also allow to save and re-open customized results [10,11]. However, such manual customization becomes time-consuming and error prone for large trees (the tree of life or the phylogenic tree of NCBI taxonomy, for example) or large tree numbers. In some modern tree-editors published recently, TreeDyn [12] and Dendroscope [13] for example, scripting and command-line consol
Amino acid composition in endothermic vertebrates is biased in the same direction as in thermophilic prokaryotes
Guang-Zhong Wang, Martin J Lercher
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-263
Abstract: We find that the observed correlations between the frequencies of individual amino acids and prokaryotic habitat temperature are strongly influenced by evolutionary relatedness between the species analysed; however, a proteome-wide bias towards increased thermostability remains after controlling for phylogeny. Do eukaryotes show similar effects of thermal adaptation? A small shift of amino acid usage in the expected direction is observed in endothermic ('warm-blooded') mammals and chicken compared to ectothermic ('cold-blooded') vertebrates with lower body temperatures; this shift is not simply explained by nucleotide usage biases.Protein homologs operating at different temperatures have different amino acid composition, both in prokaryotes and in vertebrates. Thus, during the transition from ectothermic to endothermic life styles, the ancestors of mammals and of birds may have experienced weak genome-wide positive selection to increase the thermostability of their proteins.Evolutionary molecular biology is mostly concerned with the forces affecting individual genes. However, observations of variable proportions of guanine and cytosine (GC) in different species and in different genomic regions of vertebrates [reviewed in [1,2]] have prompted the analysis of forces that may affect the evolution of complete genomes. One particular hypothesis concerns adaptation to high temperatures, proposing that high GC content results from selection favouring G:C pairs over less stable A:T pairs [3]. Against initial expectations, there seems to be no direct relationship between the GC content of prokaryotic protein-coding genes and optimal growth temperature [4,5]. Similarly, in the case of vertebrates, it was argued convincingly that the 'isochore' structure of high- and low-GC regions is not due to selection, but reflects varying fixation biases of GC over AT pairs in the presence of recombination [6,7].A clear picture of selection at work emerges only in the study of structured
Unusual linkage patterns of ligands and their cognate receptors indicate a novel reason for non-random gene order in the human genome
Laurence D Hurst, Martin J Lercher
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-5-62
Abstract: We find no evidence that ligands are linked to their receptors more closely than expected by chance. However, in the human genome there are approximately twice as many co-occurrences of ligand and receptor on the same human chromosome as expected by chance. Although a weak effect, the latter might be consistent with a past history of block duplication. Successful duplication of some ligands, we hypothesise, is more likely if the cognate receptor is duplicated at the same time, so ensuring appropriate titres of the two products.While there is an excess of ligands and their receptors on the same human chromosome, this cannot be accounted for by classical models of non-random gene order, as the linkage of ligands/receptors is no closer than expected by chance. Alternative hypotheses for non-random gene order are hence worth considering.One of the most striking discoveries in the post-genomic age has been the amount of non-random gene positioning in eukaryotic genomes [1]. In the human genome, for instance, highly/broadly expressed genes cluster [2-5]. Likewise in yeast co-expressed genes tend to reside together [6] and such pairs tend also to be retained together over evolutionary time more than expected, given the intergene distance between them [7]. Blocks of broadly expressed mammalian genes also seem to be preserved over evolutionary time more than expected [8]. In Caenorhabditis [9-11], Drosophila [12-14] and Arabidopsis [15], to name but three, there exists further evidence for expression clusters of some variety. These results all suggest that eukaryotic genomes are organised in a manner that permits co-expression or co-ordinate expression. Evidence also suggests linkage of functionally related genes, although on this issue the evidence is more equivocal, not least because of an ambiguity as to what "functionally related" can mean. On the one hand, in numerous eukaryotic genomes, genes from the same metabolic pathway cluster more than expected by chance [16] (fo
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