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Fine-grained Activity Recognition with Holistic and Pose based Features
Leonid Pishchulin,Mykhaylo Andriluka,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Holistic methods based on dense trajectories are currently the de facto standard for recognition of human activities in video. Whether holistic representations will sustain or will be superseded by higher level video encoding in terms of body pose and motion is the subject of an ongoing debate. In this paper we aim to clarify the underlying factors responsible for good performance of holistic and pose-based representations. To that end we build on our recent dataset leveraging the existing taxonomy of human activities. This dataset includes 24,920 video snippets covering 410 human activities in total. Our analysis reveals that holistic and pose-based methods are highly complementary, and their performance varies significantly depending on the activity. We find that holistic methods are mostly affected by the number and speed of trajectories, whereas pose-based methods are mostly influenced by viewpoint of the person. We observe striking performance differences across activities: for certain activities results with pose-based features are more than twice as accurate compared to holistic features, and vice versa. The best performing approach in our comparison is based on the combination of holistic and pose-based approaches, which again underlines their complementarity.
Estimation of Human Body Shape and Posture Under Clothing
Stefanie Wuhrer,Leonid Pishchulin,Alan Brunton,Chang Shu,Jochen Lang
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.cviu.2014.06.012
Abstract: Estimating the body shape and posture of a dressed human subject in motion represented as a sequence of (possibly incomplete) 3D meshes is important for virtual change rooms and security. To solve this problem, statistical shape spaces encoding human body shape and posture variations are commonly used to constrain the search space for the shape estimate. In this work, we propose a novel method that uses a posture-invariant shape space to model body shape variation combined with a skeleton-based deformation to model posture variation. Our method can estimate the body shape and posture of both static scans and motion sequences of dressed human body scans. In case of motion sequences, our method takes advantage of motion cues to solve for a single body shape estimate along with a sequence of posture estimates. We apply our approach to both static scans and motion sequences and demonstrate that using our method, higher fitting accuracy is achieved than when using a variant of the popular SCAPE model as statistical model.
Building Statistical Shape Spaces for 3D Human Modeling
Leonid Pishchulin,Stefanie Wuhrer,Thomas Helten,Christian Theobalt,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Statistical models of 3D human shape and pose learned from scan databases have developed into valuable tools to solve a variety of vision and graphics problems. Unfortunately, most publicly available models are of limited expressiveness as they were learned on very small databases that hardly reflect the true variety in human body shapes. In this paper, we contribute by rebuilding a widely used statistical body representation from the largest commercially available scan database, and making the resulting model available to the community (visit http://humanshape.mpi-inf.mpg.de). As preprocessing several thousand scans for learning the model is a challenge in itself, we contribute by developing robust best practice solutions for scan alignment that quantitatively lead to the best learned models. We make implementations of these preprocessing steps also publicly available. We extensively evaluate the improved accuracy and generality of our new model, and show its improved performance for human body reconstruction from sparse input data.
DeepCut: Joint Subset Partition and Labeling for Multi Person Pose Estimation
Leonid Pishchulin,Eldar Insafutdinov,Siyu Tang,Bjoern Andres,Mykhaylo Andriluka,Peter Gehler,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This paper considers the task of articulated human pose estimation of multiple people in real-world images. We propose an approach that jointly solves the tasks of detection and pose estimation: it infers the number of persons in a scene, identifies occluded body parts, and disambiguates body parts between people in close proximity of each other. This joint formulation is in contrast to previous strategies, that address the problem by first detecting people and subsequently estimating their body pose. We propose a partitioning and labeling formulation of a set of body-part hypotheses generated with CNN-based part detectors. Our formulation, an instance of an integer linear program, implicitly performs non-maximum suppression on the set of part candidates and groups them to form configurations of body parts respecting geometric and appearance constraints. Experiments on four different datasets demonstrate state-of-the-art results for both single person and multi person pose estimation.
Free Will and Advances in Cognitive Science  [PDF]
Leonid Perlovsky
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.21005
Abstract: Freedom of will is fundamental to morality, intuition of self, and normal functioning of society. However, science does not provide a clear logical foundation for this idea. This paper considers the fundamental argument against free will, so called reductionism, and why the choice for dualism against monism, follows logically. Then, the paper summarizes unexpected conclusions from recent discoveries in cognitive science. Classical logic turns out not to be a fundamental mechanism of the mind. It is replaced by dynamic logic. Mathematical and experimental evidence are considered conceptually. Dynamic logic counters logical arguments for reductionism. Contemporary science of mind is not reducible; free will can be scientifically accepted along with scientific monism.
Heuristic Approach to Kinematics and Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies  [PDF]
Leonid Filippov
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2016.63006
Abstract: Relativity theory formulation is proposed, based not on the axiomatic postulation of its main principles but on their inference out of a thought experiment. With this approach, the experimentally observed independence of the speed of light from the motion of source and observer is a necessary consequence of the finiteness of propagation speed of all kinds of information. The mechanism of relativistic effects origination is described; the formulas of Lorentz transformations, Doppler quadratic effect, electromagnetic interaction and centrifugal force of inertia are derived.
About Stochastic Calculus in Presence of Jumps at Predictable Stopping Times  [PDF]
Leonid Galtchouk
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2016.63035
Abstract: In this paper, some basic results of stochastic calculus are revised using the following observation: For any semimartingale, the series of jumps at predictable stopping times converges a.s. on any finite time interval, whereas the series of jumps at totally inaccessible stopping times diverges. This implies that when studying random measures generated by jumps of a given semimartingale, it is naturally to define separately a random measure μ generated by the jumps at totally inaccessible stopping times and an other random measure π generated by the jumps at predictable stopping times. Stochastic integrals f ·μμpare well defined for suitable functions f, where μp is the predictable compensator of μ. Concerning the stochastic integral h·π, it is well defined without any compensating of the integer valued measure π.
On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Mechanics and Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies  [PDF]
Leonid Filippov
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2016.69023
Abstract: The aspiration to clarify and visualize Einstein’s interpretation of the notion of simultaneity and relativistic understanding of length and time interval measurements led to the development of a model in which light pulses were replaced by sound signals. The model revealed the essence of Einstein’s mathematical constructs and the mechanism for origination of relativistic effects. Moreover, its consistent application produced novel results in particular, constructing a relativity theory based on derivation of its fundamentals out of a thought experiment. Using this approach, the ex-perimentally observed independence of the speed of light from the motion of source and observer was a necessary consequence of the finiteness of propagation speed for all kinds of in-formation. The paper provides a rationale for the logical framework formulated in article [1], and describes the experimental device built to validate the predictions of the theory and the results obtained.
Estimating Circulation Patterns by Combining Velocity and Tracer Observations  [PDF]
Leonid I. Piterbarg, Leonid M. Ivanov
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.31002

A method is suggested for estimating unknown velocities by combining their sparse measurements with observations of a tracer on a fine grid advected by the underlined velocity field. The dependence of the estimation error on a coarseness parameter and parameters of the flow in question is investigated numerically using synthetic velocity fields typical for real oceanic circulation. In an advanced version of the estimation procedure uncertainty in the transport equation forcing is modeled via a fuzzy sets approach. We also compare the method with a traditional interpolation which is in contrast to the developed procedure unable to capture the flow details.

The Cosmological Evolution of Baryonic Matter’S Density Perturbations Under Influence of the Quintessence  [PDF]
Chechin Leonid Mikhajlovich
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.28098
Abstract: For deeper understanding the process of baryonic matter evolution in the expanding Universe it is necessary to know the physical property of concrete field that represents the background of substrate type of dark energy. Beside, it is necessary to explore in details the influence of such field on the continuous medium of baryonic matter. These statements were realized for the quintessence field that describes by two gravitating scalar fields. They give own contributions at the total pressure and at the total mass density of baryonic matter. It allowed show that evolution of baryonic matter’s density perturbations obeys the equation of forced oscillations and admits the resonance case, when amplitude of baryonic matter’s density perturbations gets the strong short-time splash. This splash interprets as a new macroscopic mechanism of the initial matter density perturbations appearance.
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