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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3404 matches for " Leonela Amoasii equal contributor "
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Phosphatase-Dead Myotubularin Ameliorates X-Linked Centronuclear Myopathy Phenotypes in Mice
Leonela Amoasii equal contributor,Dimitri L. Bertazzi equal contributor,Hélène Tronchère,Karim Hnia,Ga?tan Chicanne,Bruno Rinaldi,Belinda S. Cowling,Arnaud Ferry,Bruno Klaholz,Bernard Payrastre ? ,Jocelyn Laporte ? ,Sylvie Friant ?
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002965
Abstract: Myotubularin MTM1 is a phosphoinositide (PPIn) 3-phosphatase mutated in X-linked centronuclear myopathy (XLCNM; myotubular myopathy). We investigated the involvement of MTM1 enzymatic activity on XLCNM phenotypes. Exogenous expression of human MTM1 in yeast resulted in vacuolar enlargement, as a consequence of its phosphatase activity. Expression of mutants from patients with different clinical progression and determination of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P cellular levels confirmed the link between vacuolar morphology and MTM1 phosphatase activity, and showed that some disease mutants retain phosphatase activity. Viral gene transfer of phosphatase-dead myotubularin mutants (MTM1C375S and MTM1S376N) significantly improved most histological signs of XLCNM displayed by a Mtm1-null mouse, at similar levels as wild-type MTM1. Moreover, the MTM1C375S mutant improved muscle performance and restored the localization of nuclei, triad alignment, and the desmin intermediate filament network, while it did not normalize PtdIns3P levels, supporting phosphatase-independent roles of MTM1 in maintaining normal muscle performance and organelle positioning in skeletal muscle. Among the different XLCNM signs investigated, we identified only triad shape and fiber size distribution as being partially dependent on MTM1 phosphatase activity. In conclusion, this work uncovers MTM1 roles in the structural organization of muscle fibers that are independent of its enzymatic activity. This underlines that removal of enzymes should be used with care to conclude on the physiological importance of their activity.
Loss of Catalytically Inactive Lipid Phosphatase Myotubularin-related Protein 12 Impairs Myotubularin Stability and Promotes Centronuclear Myopathy in Zebrafish
Vandana A. Gupta,Karim Hnia,Laura L. Smith,Stacey R. Gundry,Jessica E. McIntire,Junko Shimazu,Jessica R. Bass,Ethan A. Talbot,Leonela Amoasii,Nathaniel E. Goldman,Jocelyn Laporte,Alan H. Beggs
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003583
Abstract: X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by mutations of the myotubularin gene, MTM1. Myotubularin belongs to a large family of conserved lipid phosphatases that include both catalytically active and inactive myotubularin-related proteins (i.e., “MTMRs”). Biochemically, catalytically inactive MTMRs have been shown to form heteroligomers with active members within the myotubularin family through protein-protein interactions. However, the pathophysiological significance of catalytically inactive MTMRs remains unknown in muscle. By in vitro as well as in vivo studies, we have identified that catalytically inactive myotubularin-related protein 12 (MTMR12) binds to myotubularin in skeletal muscle. Knockdown of the mtmr12 gene in zebrafish resulted in skeletal muscle defects and impaired motor function. Analysis of mtmr12 morphant fish showed pathological changes with central nucleation, disorganized Triads, myofiber hypotrophy and whorled membrane structures similar to those seen in X-linked myotubular myopathy. Biochemical studies showed that deficiency of MTMR12 results in reduced levels of myotubularin protein in zebrafish and mammalian C2C12 cells. Loss of myotubularin also resulted in reduction of MTMR12 protein in C2C12 cells, mice and humans. Moreover, XLMTM mutations within the myotubularin interaction domain disrupted binding to MTMR12 in cell culture. Analysis of human XLMTM patient myotubes showed that mutations that disrupt the interaction between myotubularin and MTMR12 proteins result in reduction of both myotubularin and MTMR12. These studies strongly support the concept that interactions between myotubularin and MTMR12 are required for the stability of their functional protein complex in normal skeletal muscles. This work highlights an important physiological function of catalytically inactive phosphatases in the pathophysiology of myotubular myopathy and suggests a novel therapeutic approach through identification of drugs that could stabilize the myotubularin-MTMR12 complex and hence ameliorate this disorder.
The wall painting in the church of St. Nicholas tes Rhodias near Arta
Fundi? Leonela
Zograf , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/zog1034087f
Abstract: The paper deals with the wall paintings in the Church of St. Nicholas tes Rhodias near Arta. Many scenes and individual figures are identified for the first time, and the majority of inscriptions on the frescoes are deciphered. A significant part of the text consists of a detailed analysis of the iconographic program, with particular emphasis on the iconography and style of certain depictions, which are seldom encountered in Byzantine wall painting, or possess specific features. The findings suggest that the decoration should be dated in the second half of the thirteenth century.
Inter-Cellular Variation in DNA Content of Entamoeba histolytica Originates from Temporal and Spatial Uncoupling of Cytokinesis from the Nuclear Cycle
Chandrama Mukherjee equal contributor,Shubhra Majumder equal contributor,Anuradha Lohia
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000409
Abstract: Accumulation of multiple copies of the genome in a single nucleus and several nuclei in a single cell has previously been noted in Entamoeba histolytica, contributing to the genetic heterogeneity of this unicellular eukaryote. In this study, we demonstrate that this genetic heterogeneity is an inherent feature of the cell cycle of this organism. Chromosome segregation occurs on a variety of novel microtubular assemblies including multi-polar spindles. Cytokinesis in E. histolytica is completed by the mechanical severing of a thin cytoplasmic bridge, either independently or with the help of neighboring cells. Importantly, cytokinesis is uncoupled from the nuclear division cycle, both temporally and spatially, leading to the formation of unequal daughter cells. Sorting of euploid and polyploid cells showed that each of these sub-populations acquired heterogeneous DNA content upon further growth. Our study conclusively demonstrates that genetic heterogeneity originates from the unique mode of cell division events in this protist.
Hypersensitive to Red and Blue 1 and Its Modification by Protein Phosphatase 7 Are Implicated in the Control of Arabidopsis Stomatal Aperture
Xiaodong Sun equal contributor,Xiaojun Kang equal contributor,Min Ni
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002674
Abstract: The stomatal pores are located on the plant leaf epidermis and regulate CO2 uptake for photosynthesis and the loss of water by transpiration. Their stomatal aperture therefore affects photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and agricultural crop yields. Blue light, one of the environmental signals that regulates the plant stomatal aperture, is perceived by the blue/UV-A light-absorbing cryptochromes and phototropins. The signal transduction cascades that link the perception of light to the stomatal opening response are still largely unknown. Here, we report two new players, Hypersensitive to Red and Blue 1 (HRB1) and Protein Phosphatase 7 (PP7), and their genetic and biochemical interactions in the control of stomatal aperture. Mutations in either HRB1 or PP7 lead to the misregulation of the stomatal aperture and reduce water loss under blue light. Both HRB1 and PP7 are expressed in the guard cells in response to a light-to-dark or dark-to-light transition. HRB1 interacts with PP7 through its N-terminal ZZ-type zinc finger motif and requires a functional PP7 for its stomatal opening response. HRB1 is phosphorylated in vivo, and PP7 can dephosphorylate HRB1. HRB1 is mostly dephosphorylated in a protein complex of 193 kDa in the dark, and blue light increases complex size to 285 kDa. In the pp7 mutant, this size shift is impaired, and HRB1 is predominately phosphorylated. We propose that a modification of HRB1 by PP7 under blue light is essential to acquire a proper conformation or to bring in new components for the assembly of a functional HRB1 protein complex. Guard cells control stomatal opening in response to multiple environmental or biotic stimuli. This study may furnish strategies that allow plants to enjoy the advantages of both constitutive and ABA-induced protection under water-limiting conditions.
Kinetics of Mosquito-Injected Plasmodium Sporozoites in Mice: Fewer Sporozoites Are Injected into Sporozoite-Immunized Mice
Chahnaz Kebaier equal contributor,Tatiana Voza equal contributor,Jerome Vanderberg
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000399
Abstract: Malaria is initiated when the mosquito introduces sporozoites into the skin of a mammalian host. To successfully continue the infection, sporozoites must invade blood vessels in the dermis and be transported to the liver. A significant number of sporozoites, however, may enter lymphatic vessels in the skin or remain in the skin long after the mosquito bite. We have used fluorescence microscopy of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites expressing a fluorescent protein to evaluate the kinetics of sporozoite disappearance from the skin. Sporozoites injected into immunized mice were rapidly immobilized, did not appear to invade dermal blood vessels and became morphologically degraded within several hours. Strikingly, mosquitoes introduced significantly fewer sporozoites into immunized than into non-immunized mice, presumably by formation of an immune complex between soluble sporozoite antigens in the mosquito saliva and homologous host antibodies at the proboscis tip. These results indicate that protective antibodies directed against sporozoites may function both by reducing the numbers of sporozoites injected into immunized hosts and by inhibiting the movement of injected sporozoites into dermal blood vessels.
Sarcomere Formation Occurs by the Assembly of Multiple Latent Protein Complexes
Yanning Rui equal contributor ,Jianwu Bai equal contributor,Norbert Perrimon
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001208
Abstract: The stereotyped striation of myofibrils is a conserved feature of muscle organization that is critical to its function. Although most components that constitute the basic myofibrils are well-characterized biochemically and are conserved across the animal kingdom, the mechanisms leading to the precise assembly of sarcomeres, the basic units of myofibrils, are poorly understood. To gain insights into this process, we investigated the functional relationships of sarcomeric protein complexes. Specifically, we systematically analyzed, using either RNAi in primary muscle cells or available genetic mutations, the organization of myofibrils in Drosophila muscles that lack one or more sarcomeric proteins. Our study reveals that the thin and thick filaments are mutually dependent on each other for striation. Further, the tension sensor complex comprised of zipper/Zasp/α-actinin is involved in stabilizing the sarcomere but not in its initial formation. Finally, integrins appear essential for the interdigitation of thin and thick filaments that occurs prior to striation. Thus, sarcomere formation occurs by the coordinated assembly of multiple latent protein complexes, as opposed to sequential assembly.
An Anti-Checkpoint Activity for Rif1
Yaniv Harari equal contributor,Linda Rubinstein equal contributor,Martin Kupiec
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002421
Abstract:
Alternative Sigma Factor σH Modulates Prophage Integration and Excision in Staphylococcus aureus
Liang Tao equal contributor,Xiaoqian Wu equal contributor,Baolin Sun
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000888
Abstract: The prophage is one of the most important components of variable regions in bacterial genomes. Some prophages carry additional genes that may enhance the toxicity and survival ability of their host bacteria. This phenomenon is predominant in Staphylococcus aureus, a very common human pathogen. Bioinformatics analysis of several staphylococcal prophages revealed a highly conserved 40-bp untranslated region upstream of the int gene. A small transcript encoding phage integrase was identified to be initiated from the region, demonstrating that the untranslated region contained a promoter for int. No typical recognition sequence for either σA or σB was identified in the 40-bp region. Experiments both in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that σH recognized the promoter and directed transcription. Genetic deletion of sigH altered the int expression, and subsequently, the excision proportion of prophage DNAs. Phage assays further showed that sigH affected the ability of spontaneous lysis and lysogenization in S. aureus, suggesting that sigH plays a role in stabilizing the lysogenic state. These findings revealed a novel mechanism of prophage integration specifically regulated by a host-source alternative sigma factor. This mechanism suggests a co-evolution strategy of staphylococcal prophages and their host bacteria.
Giving Legs to Restless Legs: A Case Study of How the Media Helps Make People Sick
Steven Woloshin equal contributor ,Lisa M Schwartz equal contributor
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030170
Abstract:
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