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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 214660 matches for " Leonardo L. Gollo "
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The frustrated brain: From dynamics on motifs to communities and networks
Leonardo L. Gollo,Michael Breakspear
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0532
Abstract: Cognitive function depends on an adaptive balance between flexible dynamics and integrative processes in distributed cortical networks. Patterns of zero-lag synchrony likely underpin numerous perceptual and cognitive functions. Synchronization fulfils integration by reducing entropy, whilst adaptive function mandates that a broad variety of stable states be readily accessible. Here, we elucidate two complementary influences on patterns of zero-lag synchrony that derive from basic properties of brain networks. First, mutually coupled pairs of neuronal subsystems -- resonance pairs -- promote stable zero-lag synchrony amongst the small motifs in which they are embedded, and whose effects can propagate along connected chains. Second, frustrated closed-loop motifs disrupt synchronous dynamics, enabling metastable configurations of zero-lag synchrony to coexist. We document these two complementary influences in small motifs and illustrate how these effects underpin stable versus metastable phase-synchronization patterns in prototypical modular networks and in large-scale cortical networks of the macaque (CoCoMac). We find that the variability of synchronization patterns depends on the inter-node time delay, increases with the network size, and is maximized for intermediate coupling strengths. We hypothesize that the dialectic influences of resonance versus frustration may form a dynamic substrate for flexible neuronal integration, an essential platform across diverse cognitive processes.
Active Dendrites Enhance Neuronal Dynamic Range
Leonardo L. Gollo ,Osame Kinouchi,Mauro Copelli
PLOS Computational Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000402
Abstract: Since the first experimental evidences of active conductances in dendrites, most neurons have been shown to exhibit dendritic excitability through the expression of a variety of voltage-gated ion channels. However, despite experimental and theoretical efforts undertaken in the past decades, the role of this excitability for some kind of dendritic computation has remained elusive. Here we show that, owing to very general properties of excitable media, the average output of a model of an active dendritic tree is a highly non-linear function of its afferent rate, attaining extremely large dynamic ranges (above 50 dB). Moreover, the model yields double-sigmoid response functions as experimentally observed in retinal ganglion cells. We claim that enhancement of dynamic range is the primary functional role of active dendritic conductances. We predict that neurons with larger dendritic trees should have larger dynamic range and that blocking of active conductances should lead to a decrease in dynamic range.
Statistical Physics approach to dendritic computation: The excitable-wave mean-field approximation
Leonardo L. Gollo,Osame Kinouchi,Mauro Copelli
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.011911
Abstract: We analytically study the input-output properties of a neuron whose active dendritic tree, modeled as a Cayley tree of excitable elements, is subjected to Poisson stimulus. Both single-site and two-site mean-field approximations incorrectly predict a non-equilibrium phase transition which is not allowed in the model. We propose an excitable-wave mean-field approximation which shows good agreement with previously published simulation results [Gollo et al., PLoS Comput. Biol. 5(6) e1000402 (2009)] and accounts for finite-size effects. We also discuss the relevance of our results to experiments in neuroscience, emphasizing the role of active dendrites in the enhancement of dynamic range and in gain control modulation.
Single-Neuron Criticality Optimizes Analog Dendritic Computation
Leonardo L. Gollo,Osame Kinouchi,Mauro Copelli
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/srep03222
Abstract: Neurons are thought of as the building blocks of excitable brain tissue. However, at the single neuron level, the neuronal membrane, the dendritic arbor and the axonal projections can also be considered an extended active medium. Active dendritic branchlets enable the propagation of dendritic spikes, whose computational functions, despite several proposals, remain an open question. Here we propose a concrete function to the active channels in large dendritic trees. By using a probabilistic cellular automaton approach, we model the input-output response of large active dendritic arbors subjected to complex spatio-temporal inputs and exhibiting non-stereotyped dendritic spikes. We find that, if dendritic spikes have a non-deterministic duration, the dendritic arbor can undergo a continuous phase transition from a quiescent to an active state, thereby exhibiting spontaneous and self-sustained localized activity as suggested by experiments. Analogously to the critical brain hypothesis, which states that neuronal networks self-organize near a phase transition to take advantage of specific properties of the critical state, here we propose that neurons with large dendritic arbors optimize their capacity to distinguish incoming stimuli at the critical state. We suggest that "computation at the edge of a phase transition" is more compatible with the view that dendritic arbors perform an analog rather than a digital dendritic computation.
Mechanisms of Zero-Lag Synchronization in Cortical Motifs
Leonardo L. Gollo ,Claudio Mirasso,Olaf Sporns,Michael Breakspear
PLOS Computational Biology , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003548
Abstract: Zero-lag synchronization between distant cortical areas has been observed in a diversity of experimental data sets and between many different regions of the brain. Several computational mechanisms have been proposed to account for such isochronous synchronization in the presence of long conduction delays: Of these, the phenomenon of “dynamical relaying” – a mechanism that relies on a specific network motif – has proven to be the most robust with respect to parameter mismatch and system noise. Surprisingly, despite a contrary belief in the community, the common driving motif is an unreliable means of establishing zero-lag synchrony. Although dynamical relaying has been validated in empirical and computational studies, the deeper dynamical mechanisms and comparison to dynamics on other motifs is lacking. By systematically comparing synchronization on a variety of small motifs, we establish that the presence of a single reciprocally connected pair – a “resonance pair” – plays a crucial role in disambiguating those motifs that foster zero-lag synchrony in the presence of conduction delays (such as dynamical relaying) from those that do not (such as the common driving triad). Remarkably, minor structural changes to the common driving motif that incorporate a reciprocal pair recover robust zero-lag synchrony. The findings are observed in computational models of spiking neurons, populations of spiking neurons and neural mass models, and arise whether the oscillatory systems are periodic, chaotic, noise-free or driven by stochastic inputs. The influence of the resonance pair is also robust to parameter mismatch and asymmetrical time delays amongst the elements of the motif. We call this manner of facilitating zero-lag synchrony resonance-induced synchronization, outline the conditions for its occurrence, and propose that it may be a general mechanism to promote zero-lag synchrony in the brain.
Signal integration enhances the dynamic range in neuronal systems
Leonardo L. Gollo,Claudio Mirasso,Víctor M. Eguíluz
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.040902
Abstract: The dynamic range measures the capacity of a system to discriminate the intensity of an external stimulus. Such an ability is fundamental for living beings to survive: to leverage resources and to avoid danger. Consequently, the larger is the dynamic range, the greater is the probability of survival. We investigate how the integration of different input signals affects the dynamic range, and in general the collective behavior of a network of excitable units. By means of numerical simulations and a mean-field approach, we explore the nonequilibrium phase transition in the presence of integration. We show that the firing rate in random and scale-free networks undergoes a discontinuous phase transition depending on both the integration time and the density of integrator units. Moreover, in the presence of external stimuli, we find that a system of excitable integrator units operating in a bistable regime largely enhances its dynamic range.
Mechanisms of Zero-Lag Synchronization in Cortical Motifs
Leonardo L. Gollo,Claudio Mirasso,Olaf Sporns,Michael Breakspear
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003548
Abstract: Zero-lag synchronization between distant cortical areas has been observed in a diversity of experimental data sets and between many different regions of the brain. Several computational mechanisms have been proposed to account for such isochronous synchronization in the presence of long conduction delays: Of these, the phenomenon of "dynamical relaying" - a mechanism that relies on a specific network motif - has proven to be the most robust with respect to parameter mismatch and system noise. Surprisingly, despite a contrary belief in the community, the common driving motif is an unreliable means of establishing zero-lag synchrony. Although dynamical relaying has been validated in empirical and computational studies, the deeper dynamical mechanisms and comparison to dynamics on other motifs is lacking. By systematically comparing synchronization on a variety of small motifs, we establish that the presence of a single reciprocally connected pair - a "resonance pair" - plays a crucial role in disambiguating those motifs that foster zero-lag synchrony in the presence of conduction delays (such as dynamical relaying) from those that do not (such as the common driving triad). Remarkably, minor structural changes to the common driving motif that incorporate a reciprocal pair recover robust zero-lag synchrony. The findings are observed in computational models of spiking neurons, populations of spiking neurons and neural mass models, and arise whether the oscillatory systems are periodic, chaotic, noise-free or driven by stochastic inputs. The influence of the resonance pair is also robust to parameter mismatch and asymmetrical time delays amongst the elements of the motif. We call this manner of facilitating zero-lag synchrony resonance-induced synchronization, outline the conditions for its occurrence, and propose that it may be a general mechanism to promote zero-lag synchrony in the brain.
Diversity improves performance in excitable networks
Leonardo L. Gollo,Mauro Copelli,James A. Roberts
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: As few real systems comprise indistinguishable units, diversity is a hallmark of nature. Diversity among interacting units shapes properties of collective behavior such as synchronization and information transmission. However, the benefits of diversity on information processing at the edge of a phase transition, ordinarily assumed to emerge from identical elements, remain largely unexplored. Analyzing a general model of excitable systems with heterogeneous excitability, we find that diversity can greatly enhance optimal performance (by two orders of magnitude) when distinguishing incoming inputs. Heterogeneous systems possess a subset of specialized elements whose capability greatly exceeds that of the nonspecialized elements. Nonetheless, the behavior of the whole network can outperform all subgroups. We also find that diversity can yield multiple percolation, with performance optimized at tricriticality. Our results are robust in specific and more realistic neuronal systems comprising a combination of excitatory and inhibitory units, and indicate that diversity-induced amplification can be harnessed by neuronal systems for evaluating stimulus intensities.
Theta Band Zero-Lag Long-Range Cortical Synchronization via Hippocampal Dynamical Relaying
Leonardo L. Gollo,Claudio R. Mirasso,Mercedes Atienza,Maite Crespo-Garcia,Jose L. Cantero
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017756
Abstract: Growing evidence suggests that synchronization among distributed neuronal networks underlie functional integration in the brain. Neural synchronization is typically revealed by a consistent phase delay between neural responses generated in two separated sources. But the influence of a third neuronal assembly in that synchrony pattern remains largely unexplored. We investigate here the potential role of the hippocampus in determining cortico-cortical theta synchronization in different behavioral states during motor quiescent and while animals actively explore the environment. To achieve this goal, the two states were modeled with a recurrent network involving the hippocampus, as a relay element, and two distant neocortical sites. We found that cortico-cortical neural coupling accompanied higher hippocampal theta oscillations in both behavioral states, although the highest level of synchronization between cortical regions emerged during motor exploration. Local field potentials recorded from the same brain regions qualitatively confirm these findings in the two behavioral states. These results suggest that zero-lag long-range cortico-cortical synchronization is likely mediated by hippocampal theta oscillations in lower mammals as a function of cognitive demands and motor acts.
Dwelling Quietly in the Rich Club: Brain Network Determinants of Slow Cortical Fluctuations
Leonardo L. Gollo,Andrew Zalesky,R. Matthew Hutchison,Martijn van den Heuvel,Michael Breakspear
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: For more than a century, cerebral cartography has been driven by investigations of structural and morphological properties of the brain across spatial scales and the temporal/functional phenomena that emerge from these underlying features. The next era of brain mapping will be driven by studies that consider both of these components of brain organization simultaneously -- elucidating their interactions and dependencies. Using this guiding principle, we explored the origin of slowly fluctuating patterns of synchronization within the topological core of brain regions known as the rich club, implicated in the regulation of mood and introspection. We find that a constellation of densely interconnected regions that constitute the rich club (including the anterior insula, amygdala, and precuneus) play a central role in promoting a stable, dynamical core of spontaneous activity in the primate cortex. The slow time scales are well matched to the regulation of internal visceral states, corresponding to the somatic correlates of mood and anxiety. In contrast, the topology of the surrounding "feeder" cortical regions show unstable, rapidly fluctuating dynamics likely crucial for fast perceptual processes. We discuss these findings in relation to psychiatric disorders and the future of connectomics.
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