Abstract:
Fractional quantum Hall liquids can accomodate various degrees of spatial ordering. The most likely scenarios are a Hall hexatic, Hall smectic, and Hall crystal, in which respectively orientational, one--dimensional translational, and two--dimensional translational symmetries are broken. I derive the long--wavelength properties of these phases and the transitions between them using the Chern--Simons Landau--Ginzburg mapping, which relates them to spatially ordered superfluids. The effects of coupling to a periodic or anisotropic ``substrate'' (e.g. a gate array) are also discussed.

Abstract:
The equilibrium behavior of a system of elastic layers under tension in the presence of correlated disorder is studied using functional renormalization group techniques. The model exhibits many of the features of the Bose glass phase of type II superconductors induced by columnar defects, but may be more directly applicable to charge density waves, incommensurate striped magnetic phases, stacked membranes under tension, vicinal crystal surfaces, or superconducting ``vortex--chains''. Below five dimensions, an epsilon expansion for the stable zero temperature fixed point yields the properties of the glassy phase. Transverse to the direction of correlation, the randomness induces logarithmic growth of displacements. Displacements are strongly localized in the correlation direction. The absence of a response to a weak applied transverse field (transverse Meissner effect) is demonstrated analytically. In this simple model, the localized phase is stable to point disorder, in contrast to the behavior in the presence of dislocations, in which the converse is believed to be true.

Abstract:
A tight binding model is introduced to describe the strong interaction limit of excitonic ordering. At stoichiometry, the model reduces in the strong coupling limit to a pseudo-spin model with approximate U(4) symmetry. Excitonic order appears in the pseudo-spin model as in-plane pseudo-magnetism. The U(4) symmetry unifies all possible singlet and triplet order parameters describing such states. Super-exchange, Hunds-rule coupling, and other perturbations act as anisotropies splitting the U(4) manifold, ultimately stabilizing a paramagnetic triplet state. The tendency to ferromagnetism with doping (observed experimentally in the hexaborides) is explained as a spin-flop transition to a different orientation of the U(4) order parameter. The physical mechanism favoring such a reorientation is the enhanced coherence (and hence lower kinetic energy) of the doped electrons in a ferromagnetic background relative to the paramagnet. A discussion of the physical meaning of various excitonic states and their experimental consequences is also provided.

Abstract:
Band theory predicts an inverse square root van Hove singularity in the tunneling density of states at the minimum energy of an unoccupied subband in a one-dimensional quantum wire. With interactions, an orthogonality catastrophe analogous to the x-ray edge effect for core levels in a metal strongly reduces this singularity by a power B of the energy above threshold, with B approximately 0.3 for typical carbon nanotubes. Despite the anomalous tunneling characteristic, good quasiparticles corresponding to the unoccupied subband states do exist.

Abstract:
We show, in several important and general cases, that a low variational energy density of a trial state is possible even when the trial state represents a different phase from the ground state. Specifically, we ask whether the ground state energy density of a Hamiltonian whose ground state is in phase A can be approximated to arbitrary accuracy by a wavefunction which represents a different phase B. We show this is indeed the case when A has discrete symmetry breaking order in one dimension or topological order in two dimensions, while B is disordered. We argue that, if reasonable conditions of physicality are imposed upon the trial wavefunction, then this is not possible when A has discrete symmetry breaking in dimensions greater than one and B is symmetric, or when A is topologically trivial and B has topological order.

Abstract:
Carbon nanotubes provide a remarkably versatile system in which to explore the effects of Coulomb interactions in one dimension. The most dramatic effects of strong electron-electron repulsion are *orthogonality catastrophes*. These orthogonality catastrophes come in different varieties, and can be observed both in low-bias transport and tunneling measurements on nanotubes. This article contains a review of previous work and new material on the crossover between Coulomb blockade and Luttinger behavior.

Abstract:
We consider a model of a reconstructed crystal surface, first considered by Villain and Vilfan (Europhys. Lett. 12, p. 523 (1990) and Surf. Sci. 257, p. 368 (1991)) for the gold (110) surface, in which roughening occurs via the formation of anisotropic steps traversing the entire length of the crystal. The model is studied by a mapping to a spin--1/2 Fermion system in 1+1 dimensions, which, in the absence of islands, is precisely the Hubbard model. We consider a general $\pbyo$ reconstruction, in the presence of inter--step interactions and closed islands. Our analysis predicts the existence of a new type of rough phase, with incommensurate correlations in the reconstruction order parameter and unusual momentum space singularities at a characteristic ``Fermi momentum'' and its harmonics, analagous to the Luttinger liquid of one--dimensional Fermions. The general phase structure for $p>1$ is as follows: for $p>2$, there is a flat ordered (FO), a rough incommensurate (RI), and a flat incommensurate phase (FI). The FO--RI and FO--FI transitions are of the commensurate to incommensurate type, and the FI--RI transition is in the Kosterlitz--Thouless (KT) universality class. For $p=2$, the FI phase is replaced by a flat disordered phase (FD), and there may be a new rough disordered phase (RD). The FO--FD transition is now of Ising type, and the FD--RD and RI--RD transitions are in the KT universality class.

Abstract:
We use Ginzburg-Landau theory to study the $H_{c2}$ transition in layered superconductors with field parallel to the layers, finding a continuous 3d freezing transition to a triangular vortex super-solid in the three-dimensional XY universality class. If screening effects are neglected, off--diagonal--long--range--order survives only for $d>d_{lc}=5/2$. The partial breaking of the lowest Landau level degeneracy induced by layering leads to a {\sl local} selection of a triangular lattice structure, in contrast to the {\sl global} free energy minimization in, e.g. Abrikosov's calculation. Our results are relevant to artificially layered superconductors and to strongly anisotropic high T$_c$ materials.

Abstract:
We study the phase transitions of interacting bosons at zero temperature between superfluid (SF) and supersolid (SS) states. The latter are characterized by simultaneous off-diagonal long-range order and broken translational symmetry. The critical phenomena is described by a long-wavelength effective action, derived on symmetry grounds and verified by explicit calculation. We consider two types of supersolid ordering: checkerboard (X) and collinear (C), which are the simplest cases arising in two dimensions on a square lattice. We find that the SF--CSS transition is in the three-dimensional XY universality class. The SF--XSS transition exhibits non-trivial new critical behavior, and appears, within a $d=3-\epsilon$ expansion to be driven generically first order by fluctuations. However, within a one--loop calculation directly in $d=2$ a strong coupling fixed point with striking ``non-Bose liquid'' behavior is found. At special isolated multi-critical points of particle-hole symmetry, the system falls into the 3d Ising universality class.

Abstract:
We study the delocalization by bulk randomness of a single flux line (FL) from an extended defect, such as a columnar pin or twin plane. In three dimensions, the FL is always bound to a planar defect, while there is an unpinning transition from a columnar pin. Transfer matrix simulations confirm this picture, and indicate that the divergence of the localization length from the columnar defect is governed by a liberation exponent $\nu_\perp =1.3 \pm 0.6$, for which a ``mean-field'' estimate gives $\nu_\perp \approx 0.78$. The results, and their extensions, are compared to other theories. The effects may be observable in thin samples close to $H_{c1}$.