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Activation of the hypnozoite: a part of Plasmodium vivax life cycle and survival
Lena Hulden, Larry Hulden
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-90
Abstract: The dormant stage maximizes the possibility for the parasite to reach the vector for sexual reproduction. The advantage would increase if the parasite was able to detect the presence of a new generation of vectors. The sporozoites function both in the vector and in the human hosts. They invade the cells of the salivary gland in the vector and the hepatocytes in the human. Some of the sporozoites develop into hypnozoites in the human liver. It is suggested that the hypnozoite activates when it recognizes the same Anopheles specific protein, which it had previously recognized as a sporozoite to invade the salivary gland in the vector. Another possibility is that the hypnozoite activates upon the bodily reaction by the human on a bite by an Anopheles female.The connection between the relapse and a new generation of vectors can be documented by simultaneous monitoring of both parasitaemia in humans and the presence of uninfective/infective vectors in the same area with seasonal malaria transmission. Experimental studies are needed to find the saliva components, which trigger the relapse. Although P. cynomolgi in monkeys also has hypnozoites and relapses, testing with monkeys might be problematical. These live in a reasonably stable tropical environment where relapses cannot easily be linked to vectors. The importance of the trigger increases in unpredictable variations in the vector season.Artificial triggering of hypnozoites would make the medication more effective and resistance against a protein that the parasite itself uses during its life cycle would not develop. In areas with seasonal vivax malaria it could be used locally for eradication.Plasmodium vivax is the most common human malaria species outside Africa with 2.6 billion people at risk in South Asia, Southeast Asia, South and Central America [1]. It is the most widespread malaria parasite and was, until the middle of the 20th century present in almost the whole inhabited world with presumably the exception o
The decline of malaria in Finland – the impact of the vector and social variables
Lena Hulden, Larry Hulden
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-94
Abstract: To analyse the long-term trend malaria statistics were collected from 1750–2008. During that time, malaria frequency decreased from about 20,000 – 50,000 per 1,000,000 people to less than 1 per 1,000,000 people. To assess the cause of the decline, a correlation analysis was performed between malaria frequency per million people and temperature data, animal husbandry, consolidation of land by redistribution and household size.Anopheles messeae and Anopheles beklemishevi exist only as larvae in June and most of July. The females seek an overwintering place in August. Those that overwinter together with humans may act as vectors. They have to stay in their overwintering place from September to May because of the cold climate. The temperatures between June and July determine the number of malaria cases during the following transmission season. This did not, however, have an impact on the long-term trend of malaria. The change in animal husbandry and reclamation of wetlands may also be excluded as a possible cause for the decline of malaria. The long-term social changes, such as land consolidation and decreasing household size, showed a strong correlation with the decline of Plasmodium.The indigenous malaria in Finland faded out evenly in the whole country during 200 years with limited or no counter-measures or medication. It appears that malaria in Finland was basically a social disease and that malaria trends were strongly linked to changes in human behaviour. Decreasing household size caused fewer interactions between families and accordingly decreasing recolonization possibilities for Plasmodium. The permanent drop of the household size was the precondition for a permanent eradication of malaria.Vivax malaria was a common endemic disease in Finland in the 18th and 19th century and prevalent in the whole country. The situation was the worst in the south-western part with the archipelago [1,2]. The illness of the population was a major problem and much effort was made
The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland
Lena Hulden
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-43
Abstract: Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank.Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it.Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year.In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844.After the Great Northern War (1700-1721), Sweden lost the major part of its Baltic provinces and Karelia in Eastern Finland. The autocracy was replaced by the power of the estates of the realm. The military budget was decreased. More resources were invested in the development of universities, academies and research. Swedish science, with names as Anders Celsius, Carolus Linnaeus and Pehr Wargentin, made the Swedish ac
The Impact of CBSE’s Activities on E-Commerce Applications  [PDF]
Lena Khaled
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.51A005

Component based technology is widely used for both academicians and business. There are numbers of benefits for using this type of technology. First, it helps to increase the efficiency and maintainability of software. Second, it improves quality and helps to enhance productivity. Third, the reuse approach that supports component based technology decreases the time to market. Component based e-commerce can be used to solve e-commerce difficulties at application level as well as at system level. This paper introduces how component based activities have effect mainly on building the framework of the e-commerce. It also discusses how the architectural design of the application can be synthesized.

The Health and Well-Being among Children with Diabetes and Low HbA1c—A Qualitative Study in Sweden  [PDF]
Lena Lendahls, Ingrid Edvardsson
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.105044
Abstract: Aims and objectives: To examine health and well-being, as well as the need for support among children and parents where the child has T1DM with low HbA1c (<52 mmol/mole). The purpose was also to investigate the extent to which children’s and parents’ experiences match. Introduction: Studies have shown that children with diabetes type 1 (T1DM) rate their lives as worse than healthy peer ratings. In Sweden, views have been expressed that children, as well as their parents, feel pressurized by the diabetes teams to achieve low HbA1c values, which can lead to poorer mental health for the family. Design: A qualitative study. Methods: A consecutive sample of 11 children and their parents (one father, ten mothers) was interviewed together but individually guided by a semi structured interview guide. Interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results: Four main categories were consistent across children and their parents; 1) attitude to the illness, 2) sadness about diabetes, 3) the importance of the social network, and 4) the importance of the diabetes team. Worries about hyperglycemia were more prominent than worries about hypoglycemia in both children and parents. A distinguishing feature of the interviewed children was that they were responsible, strict and targeted. Many of them were competitive and took part in various sports, even at a very advanced level. Conclusions: This study shows that children with low HbA1c values experience good health and good well-being. Family support, good planning, and high acceptance of their illness contributed to this.
A liberdade de imprensa em chave marxiana / Freedom of the press in a marxian perspective
Helio Lena Lena
Revista Direito e Práxis , 2011,
Abstract: Resumo O presente artigo tem por objetivo discutir, mesmo que preliminarmente, a idéia de liberdade de imprensa em Karl Marx, Wladimir Lênin e Leon Trotsky. Acreditamos que, a práxis política destes atores sociais estava condicionada pela existência de uma liberdade de express o como reflexo da organiza o política. Todavia, nem sempre o que se verificou na prática, foi a liberdade de imprensa dada pelos governantes aos opositores; para tanto, os atores supracitados acreditavam que a liberdade de imprensa constituía um direito alienável dos cidad os. Palavras-chave: Liberdade de imprensa, jornalismo proletário, comunismo Abstract This article intends to argue, even though on preliminary basis, the idea of press freedom in the thought of Karl Marx, Wladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky. We believe that the political praxis of these social actors was conditioned by the existence of free speech as a reflex of the political organization. On another hand, not always was press freedom actually given by governments to oppositionists; in order to achieve it, the previously mentioned actors believed that press freedom was an alienable right of citizens. Keywords: Freedom of the press, proletarian journalism, communism
The Case for the Use of PPARγ Agonists as an Adjunctive Therapy for Cerebral Malaria
Lena Serghides
PPAR Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/513865
Abstract: Cerebral malaria is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection associated with high mortality even when highly effective antiparasitic therapy is used. Adjunctive therapies that modify the pathophysiological processes caused by malaria are a possible way to improve outcome. This review focuses on the utility of PPARγ agonists as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of cerebral malaria. The current knowledge of PPARγ agonist use in malaria is summarized. Findings from experimental CNS injury and disease models that demonstrate the potential for PPARγ agonists as an adjunctive therapy for cerebral malaria are also discussed. 1. Introduction Few diseases have the global health and economic impact of malaria [1]. In 2009, an estimated 225 million people were infected with malaria and close to a million people succumbed to their infection [2]. Malaria is caused by apicomplexan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Five species infect humans, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and most recently, P. knowlesi [3]. The majority of morbidity and mortality is caused by P. falciparum infection, with the highest burden born by children and pregnant women. In the absence of prompt and effective treatment, P. falciparum infection can progress quickly, rapidly becoming severe and fatal. The rise in drug-resistant parasites complicates the administration of effective treatment. Severe malaria has multiple manifestations that can occur singly or in combination. They include hyperparasitemia, high fever, haemoglobinuria, acute renal failure, acute pulmonary edema, metabolic acidosis and respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, anemia, and cerebral malaria, which is characterized by coma and convulsions. Cerebral malaria has the highest mortality rate of all the severe complications and is associated with long-term cognitive and neurological deficits in surviving children [4–6]. Intravenous artesunate is now the standard of care for severe malaria in both adults and children following the landmark SEAQUAMAT and AQUAMAT trials that demonstrated the superiority of artesunate over quinine in adults and in children [7, 8]. However, even with the improved efficacy of artesunate, fatality rates remained high, 15% in adults and 10.9% in children. Adjunctive therapies, defined as therapies administered in combination with antiparasitic drugs that modify pathophysiological processes caused by malaria, have been pursued as a way to improve the outcome of severe malaria. Adjunctive therapies may also help extend the efficacy of antiparasitic
Caries Detection Methods Based on Changes in Optical Properties between Healthy and Carious Tissue
Lena Karlsson
International Journal of Dentistry , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/270729
Abstract: A conservative, noninvasive or minimally invasive approach to clinical management of dental caries requires diagnostic techniques capable of detecting and quantifying lesions at an early stage, when progression can be arrested or reversed. Objective evidence of initiation of the disease can be detected in the form of distinct changes in the optical properties of the affected tooth structure. Caries detection methods based on changes in a specific optical property are collectively referred to as optically based methods. This paper presents a simple overview of the feasibility of three such technologies for quantitative or semiquantitative assessment of caries lesions. Two of the techniques are well-established: quantitative light-induced fluorescence, which is used primarily in caries research, and laser-induced fluorescence, a commercially available method used in clinical dental practice. The third technique, based on near-infrared transillumination of dental enamel is in the developmental stages. 1. Introduction Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of humans worldwide. When different stages of the disease are taken into account, from the initial to the clinically manifest lesion, very few individuals are truly unaffected. In most industrialised countries 60%–90% of school-aged children are affected. The prevalence among adults is even higher and in most countries the disease affects nearly 100% of the population [1]. During the last thirty years, however, major changes have occurred in the pattern of the disease. Progression of enamel caries is now slower [2], allowing time for preventive intervention before irreversible destruction of tooth substance occurs. During the early stages of the disease the process is reversible and can be arrested: noninvasive intervention can convert a lesion from an active to an inactive state [3, 4]. Appropriate diagnostic techniques are necessary to support such decisions about management of the individual lesion. The clinician needs to be able to monitor the outcome of noninvasive measures and in cases where there is evidence of lesion progression, make a timely decision to intervene, using minimally invasive techniques and restoring damaged tooth structure without weakening the tooth. Applying strategies to control, arrest, or reverse the disease process can reduce the economic burden, pain, and suffering of placing and replacing restorations [5]. This modern, conservative approach to clinical management of dental caries, which has been evolving during the past twenty years, has necessitated a
Gasto social no Brasil: programas de transferência de renda versus investimento social
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232007000600009
Abstract: this paper compares the dynamics of social spending in brazil, with lower outlays on basic services and more direct monetary transfers through means-test programs, highlighting the fact that as brazil's social safety net concentrates on cash transfer programs without simultaneously increasing per capita outlays on education, basic sanitation and housing, it is not resolving the issue of inequality. this paper works with secondary data from the national household sampling survey, together with federal, state and municipal budgets.
The correct use of the vernacular names for South American dolphins genus Sotalia Gray (Mammalia, Cetacea, Delphinidae)
Geise, Lena;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752006000400043
Abstract: the usage of the vernacular names for south american dolphins genus sotalia gray, 1866 is discussed in accordance to geographic characteristics of local people identification.
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