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Review Article Conscientious Objection and Reproductive Health Service Delivery in Sub-Saharan Africa
VM Lema
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2012,
Abstract: Lack of access to quality reproductive health services is the main contributor to the high maternal mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This is partly due to a shortage of qualified and experienced health care providers. However conscientious objection amongst the available few is a hitherto undocumented potential factor influencing access to health care in SSA. Provision of certain reproductive health services goes counter to some individual’s religious and moral beliefs and practices. Health providers sometimes refuse to participate in or provide such services to clients/patients on moral and/or religious grounds. While the rights to do so are protected by the principles of freedom of religion, among other documents, their refusal exposes clients/patients to the risk of reproductive health morbidity as well as mortality. Such providers are required to refer the clients/patients to other equally qualified and experienced providers who do not hold similar conscientious objection. Access to high quality and evidence-based reproductive health services by all in need is critical to attaining MDG5. In addressing factors contributing to delay in attaining MDG5 in SSA it is instructive to consider the role of conscientious objection in influencing access to quality reproductive health care services and strategies to address it.
Hypertextualit t, Komplexit t, Kreativit t: Der Einsatz linguistischer Software zum Generieren neuen Wissens über das Essen und Getr nke historischer Mayas Hypertextuality, Complexity, Creativity: Using Linguistic Software Tools to Uncover New Information about the Food and Drink of Historic Mayans Hipertextualidad, complejidad, creatividad: Empleo de herramientas de software lingüístico para descubrir nueva información acerca de la comida y las bebidas de los mayas históricos
Rose Lema
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2012,
Abstract: In diesem Beitrag über natürliche Sprache pr sentiere ich eine computergestützte Studie bromatologischer Worte, S tze und Hypertexte eines Maya-spanischen Lexikons des 16. Jahrhunderts – das vollst ndigste und ausführlichste Lexikon, das über die Kultur der Konstrukteure der wunderbaren Maya-St dte Uxmal, Kalakmul und Chichén-Itzá verfasst wurde (ARZáPALO 1995). Um einen komplexen Korpus zu schaffen, habe ich Konzepte der Drei-K rper-Theorie und der fraktalen Dimension genutzt (POINCARé 1908; MANDELBROT 1975). In einem ersten Schritt habe ich den Ausgangstext mittels einer einfachen Suche durchgearbeitet, um Abkürzungen für "Bromatologie" und "Botanik" zu finden. Danach habe ich die korrespondierenden spanischen Begriffe gekürzt und das gesamte Lexikon nach ihnen durchsucht. In einem zweiten Schritt habe ich die zwei- und dreidimensionalen hypertextuellen Beziehungen zwischen den ausfindig gemachten Worten und S tzen und deren Kookkurrenzen mittels Tropes ermittelt, einer linguistischen Software, die lexikalische und inhaltsanalytische Tools verbindet und für qualitative und quantitative Analysen eingesetzt werden kann. Dann habe ich drittens im Internet nach Bildern gesucht und so einen dritten Text ("K rper") geschaffen, der Essen, Getr nke und Geschirr zeigt, die noch heute (und seit mindestens fünf Jahrhunderten) von den Mayas gesch tzt werden. Trotz der zuvor skizzierten Arbeit ist keiner der drei fraktal ineinander verschachtelten "K rper" vollst ndig. Die Studie der Beziehungen zwischen den "K rpern" kann aber unser Wissen über die komplexe Juxtaposition zwischen dem "Siglo de Oro", dem goldenen Zeitalter Spaniens und Maya-Sprache und -Kultur auf der Yucatán-Halbinsel vertiefen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202215 In this essay on natural language I present a computer-supported study of words, sentences and hypertexts concerning bromatology (the study of food and drink) in a XVI century Maya-Spanish Calepin—the most complete and extended dictionary ever written on the culture of the constructors of the wonderful and prestigious Mayan cities of Uxmal, Kalakmul, Chichén-Itzá (ARZáPALO, 1995). For constructing a complex corpus, I apply concepts of the three-body and the fractal dimension theories (POINCARé, 1908; MANDELBROT, 1975). First, I register an initial body of text by simply searching via the find key for abbreviations of bromatology and botany already recorded by the citation word in the Calepin. Then, I arbitrarily shorten the Spanish form corresponding to tasty and gather it through the whole dictionary. This way I obt
Los resúmenes científicos a congresos y sus publicaciones in-extenso: Una dirección cada vez mas infrecuente
Guillermo Lema
Revista Chilena de Cardiología , 2012,
Abstract:
Cherchez la Femme en The Ox-Bow Incident de Wellman: analizando fractales
Rose Lema
Ciencia Ergo Sum , 2009,
Abstract: Se presenta una definición sucinta de conceptos generales provenientes de la Teoría del Caos, empleados particularmente en termodinámica: fractal, autosimilaridad, bifurcación (Mandelbrot) y se describe brevemente el principio de Poincaré en torno a la Teoría de los Tres cuerpos. Un método similar con las correspondientes variantes ha sido aplicado por varios estudiosos de las Humanidades, con el fin de demostrar que se puede atravesar un puente entre ideas de éstas y las demás ciencias. Segundo, se aplicó el método para estudiar los personajes femeninos del filme The Ox-Bow Incident de William Wellman, que ganara el óscar por la mejor película en el mismo a o de su producción. Por último, se argumenta que la Geometría Fractal de la Naturaleza conduce a descentralizar el rol de los cowboys que llevan a cabo el linchamiento, mientras que se centra el papel de las mujeres, y, en especial, a visualizar dos personajes femeninos virtuales, gesto que rompe con la aparente linearidad de la trama.
Experiencia clínica con inhibidores de la PDE-5 en hipertensión pulmonar
Lema,Luis R;
Insuficiencia card?-aca , 2007,
Abstract: pulmonary hypertension is a serious disease of various origins. in the last ten years we have witnessed tremendous advancements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. several of these new insights have led to the development and clinical application of novel treatments for this devasting disease. nitric oxide-a potent vasodilator- is a key player of pulmonary vasoregulation with cgmp as a second messenger. the effects of cgmp are limited by enzymatic degradation through phosphodiesterases (pdes). sildenafil a highly selective inhibitor of pdes 5 improved pulmonary hemodynamics and exercise capacity for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension as monotherapy and/or in combination with other vasodilators. this review article summarizes the pharmacology, clinical efficacy and safety of sildenafil and others pdes5 inhibitors for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Criterios de selección en los procesos de manipulación vegetal: el aporte de la etnobotánica a la interpretación de restos arqueobotánicos de Cucurbita sp
Lema,Verónica S;
Darwiniana , 2009,
Abstract: in this paper, an ethnobotanical-ethnoarchaeological study of different local landraces of cucurbita maxima subsp. maxima, cucurbitaceae, was carried on. the aim was to evaluate if different qualitative and quantitative seed characters of these local landraces, as well as those which came from plants resulting from cultivation or husbandry, get together or not in different morphotypes which materially reflect the diversity locally recognized, as well as local practices. the construction of these morphotypes is proposed as a way to recognize local landraces and different forms of man - plant interactions in archaeobotanical samples. domesticated plants are the result of actions derived from selection criteria socially built and transformed, therefore they can constitute different morphotypes which act as carriers of social meanings. for this reason we believe that an ethnoarcheological ethnobotany which generates models to contrast in paleoethnobotanical work will be a good option. macroscopical morphological descriptors commonly used in archaeobotany were employed together with new micromorphological ones. it was concluded that quantitative micromorphological characters are the most adequate ones to create morphotypes which correspond with locally recognized landraces and with husbandry practices locally developed upon vegetable populations.
Trípode en el que se sustenta una sociedad civilizada: ciudadanía activa, estado democrático y economía ética
Lema García,Marcela;
Revista Latinoamericana de Bioética , 2011,
Abstract: the work produced is a thematic review that aims to reflect on civic ethics, from the look of adela cortina, who offers a clear exposition, allowing conceptual understanding of it, as well as the urgency of their quest. the approach is performed in relation to the role of three key elements, which are useful at time to trying to build a better society. those three elements constitute a tripod on which civic ethics rests: a participatory democracy, an economy exerted from ethical companies and active citizenship.
Cirugía cardiaca con circulación extracorpórea: síndrome vasoplégico y vasopresina
Gilbert,Macarena; Lema,Guillermo;
Revista médica de Chile , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872011000300014
Abstract: cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with systemic inflammatory response. in some cases this clinical condition is characterized by severe hypotension due to low systemic vascular resistance during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. afew ofthese cases do not respond to volume or catecholamines. this condition is known as vasoplegic syndrome. its etiology is notfully understood today and carries associated morbidity and mortality in this syndrome, vasopressin levéis are reduced, as in septic and hypovolemic shock. supplementary vasopressin improves blood pressure and might be considered as an alternative treatment. severa! reports have shown benefits when used alone or in combination with catecholamines. however, further studies are necessary to find the most appropriate use ofthe drug for vasoplegic syndrome.
Use of SCAR-PCR in diagnostics of stem base pathogens of the Rhizoctonia and Oculimacula genus
Grzegorz Lemańczyk
Acta Agrobotanica , 2011, DOI: 10.5586/aa.2011.061
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to compare the efficacy of SCAR-PCR assay and conventional diagnostic technique (visual assessment, isolation on PDA medium) in the identification of fungi from the genera Rhizoctonia and Oculimacula from winter triticale, rye, and barley during the shooting stage. The usefulness of molecular diagnosis of fungal pathogens in crop plants has been demonstrated. The application of SCAR- -PCR assay allowed early detection of the following pathogens: O. yallundae, O. acuformis, R. cerealis and R. solani, in plant tissues. This method was particularly effective in detection of R. solani. The research showed the usefulness of PCR markers for early detection of fungal pathogens, even if symptoms were not visible. Using the PCR technique, especially in combination with conventional methods, substantially increases the precision and effectiveness of disease diagnostics.
Representations of the Devil: Social Fears Demonstrated in Three Conventual Writings from the New Kingdom of Granada Representaciones del Demonio: miedos sociales vislumbrados en tres escritos conventuales neogranadinos
Esther Cristina Cabrera Lema
Revista CS , 2012,
Abstract: The colonial body was structured by the attitudes and behaviors modeled in stories of exemplary individuals promoted by the regimes of order of the Catholic Church. Furthermore, images of hell, punishment, and especially of the Devil allowed the Church to shape and project fears based on religious concepts into the social context. The indigenous, black slaves, and mestizos were demonized with the purpose of maintaining the social hierarchy by protecting and sheltering women of the elite class from unequal unions. The protection of these women was achieved by isolating them in convents, where women were allowed to write about their experiences. Through these texts it is possible to shed light on the role that the image of the devil played in the minds of the nuns and to analyze their appropriation, interpretation and re-presentation based on the social fears of their context. El proyecto ordenador de la Iglesia Católica estructuró el cuerpo social colonial a partir de los modelos de comportamiento ideales de sujetos ejemplares, adicionalmente se utilizaron discursos referentes al Demonio, lo que permitió trasladar los miedos basados en conceptos religiosos a miedos sociales del contexto neogranadino. El indio, el negro y el mestizo fueron demonizados con el fin de mantener el orden jerárquico evitando cualquier unión desigual con las mujeres de la elite. La protección de estas mujeres se logró mediante su aislamiento físico en espacios conventuales, en los cuales, algunas de ellas elaboraron escritos a partir de los cuales, es posible vislumbrar el rol que jugó la imagen del Demonio, permitiendo analizar su apropiación, interpretación y re-presentación basados en los miedos sociales de su contexto.
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