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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1681 matches for " Lekha Saha "
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The Effect of Amlodipine Alone and in Combination with Atenolol on Bowel Habit in Patients with Hypertension: An Observation
Lekha Saha,Chander Shekhar Gautam
ISRN Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/757141
Evaluation of Lercanidipine in Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain Model in Rat: A Preliminary Study
Lekha Saha,Debasish Hota,Amitava Chakrabarti
Pain Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/143579
Abstract: Objective. To demonstrate the antinociceptive effect of lercanidipine in paclitaxel-induced neuropathy model in rat. Materials and Methods. A total of 30 rats were divided into five groups of six rats in each group as follows: Gr I: 0.9% NaCl, Gr II: paclitaxel?+?0.9% NaCl, Gr III: paclitaxel?+?lercanidipine 0.5?μg/kg, Gr IV: paclitaxel?+?lercanidipine 1?μg/kg, and Gr V: paclitaxel?+?lercanidipine 2.5?μg/kg. Paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in rat was produced by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 1?mg/kg of paclitaxel on four alternate days (0, 2, 4, and 6). The tail flick and cold allodynia methods were used for assessing the pain threshold, and the assessments were done on days 0 (before first dose of paclitaxel) and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Results. There was a significant decrease ( ) in the tail flick and cold allodynia latency in the paclitaxel-alone group from day 14 onward when compared with day 0. In the lercanidipine groups, the decrease in the tail flick and cold allodynia latency was not observed in 1.0 and 2.5?μg/kg groups and it was statistically significant ( ) when compared with paclitaxel-alone group. 1. Introduction Neuropathic pain is a type of pain which is caused by damage to or dysfunction of the nervous system. [1] Neuropathic pain cannot be explained by a single disease process or a single specific location of damage. It is a disorder in the structure and function of peripheral, motor, sensory, and/or autonomic neurons either partially or completely [2]. Neuropathic pain may be divided into peripheral, central, or mixed (peripheral and central) neuropathic pain. As much as 7% to 8% of the population is affected and in 5%, it may be severe [3]. In order to evaluate the mechanisms of neuropathic pain and to find new therapeutic approaches, different experimental neuropathic pain models have been developed which include chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation, and partial transaction of sciatic nerve. Current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of neuropathic pain is incomplete and is biased by a focus on animal models of peripheral nerve injury, and the treatment is often unsatisfactory. It is an area of largely unmet therapeutic need. The current pharmacological mainstays of clinical management are tricyclic antidepressants and certain anticonvulsants, but these only achieve clinically significant (>50%) pain relief in 40–60% of patients and are associated with several side effects. Opioids are generally considered to be less effective in neuropathic pain than in inflammatory pain
Insights into the Changing Perspectives of Multiple Sclerosis in India
Lekha Pandit
Autoimmune Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/937586
Abstract: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is being diagnosed in increasing numbers in metropolitan cities of India for which the availability of specialist neurologists and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilities are primarily responsible. Epidemiological data are unavailable. Existing data have been obtained from small often retrospective studies from different parts of the country. These earlier studies suggested that optic nerve and spinal cord involvement are considerably high, and that perhaps optic spinal MS was the most prevalent form in India. On this basis it was also speculated that neuromyelitis optica (NMO) may be overrepresented in Indians. However in recent times, prospective studies backed by MRI data have shown no distinct differences between MS seen in the west and India. Sero positivity for NMO IgG is low though NMO phenotype disorders constitute nearly 20% of demyelinating disorders in India. Genetic susceptibility for MS among Indians may be similar to that for white populations. In the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), HLA DR1*1501 has been strongly associated with MS in Indians. A recent study that evaluated the established non-MHC multiple sclerosis loci in a small data set of Indian patients suggested a strong similarity with white populations. This review highlights some of the background information available on MS from India and so also some recent studies that unveiled the disease characteristics in Indian patients. 1. Introduction In the mid seventies in Kurtzke’s MS world map [1] India was included in the list of countries belonging to the low prevalence zone (<5/100,000). Even at that time, it was believed that in developing countries there was underestimation of disease prevalence for MS. Poser [2] mentioned paucity of neurologists, paucity of postmortem examinations, and unavailability of confirmatory test procedures such as neuroimaging, evoked potential studies, and reliable cerebrospinal fluid examination as some of the several problems in analyzing data from tropical countries. Record keeping and long-term followup of patients have seen serious limitations in all but the teaching hospitals and continue to hinder data collection and analysis of diseases in India. A decade later, there has been indirect evidence from hospital statistics in India suggesting that the number of cases diagnosed per year may have nearly doubled [3, 4]. This may be partly due to early detection especially since in recent times, MRI has become mandatory in all teaching hospitals in the country. Additionally there has been an increase in neurologists
Invited commentary
Pandit Lekha
Neurology India , 2009,
Transverse myelitis spectrum disorders
Pandit Lekha
Neurology India , 2009,
Abstract: Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that affects the spinal cord focally resulting in motor sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Establishing the diagnosis of ATM is not as difficult as determining the possible etiology. There is a difference in the perception of ATM seen in the West as compared to developing countries. In the West multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. An attack of ATM may be the beginning of MS. However, this may not be the case in developing countries where MS is uncommon. Most often transverse myelitis is monophasic and at best represents a site-restricted form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Traditionally the combination of optic neuritis and ATM, occurring as a monophasic illness would have been called as neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Changing concepts in the definition of NMO and the discovery of a biomarker, neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin (NMO_IgG), has changed the way relapsing autoimmune disorders are being perceived currently. A variety of idiopathic inflammatory disorders such as Japanese form of optic spinal MS, recurrent myelitis, and recurrent optic neuritis have been brought under the umbrella of neuromyelitis spectrum disorders because of the association with NMO-IgG. Complete transverse myelitis accompanied by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis which is seronegative for this biomarker has also been reported from several countries including Japan, Australia, and India. Thus, ATM is a heterogeneous disorder with a varied clinical spectrum, etiology, and outcome.
Differential diagnosis of white matter diseases in the tropics: An overview
Pandit Lekha
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 2009,
Abstract: In hospitals in the tropics, the availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilities in urban areas and especially in teaching institutions have resulted in white matter diseases being frequently reported in a variety of clinical settings. Unlike the west where multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest white matter disease encountered, in the tropics, there are myriad causes for the same. Infectious and post infectious disorders probably account for the vast majority of these diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection tops the list of infective conditions. Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis occasionally presents with patchy parenchymal lesions unaccompanied by meningeal involvement. Human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV) infection and cystic inflammatory lesions such as neurocysticercosis are important causes to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Diagnosing post infectious demyelinating disorders is equally challenging since more than a third of cases seen in the tropics do not present with history of past infection or vaccinations. Metabolic and deficiency disorders such as Wernicke′s encephalopathy, osmotic demyelinating syndrome associated with extra pontine lesions and Vitamin B12 deficiency states can occassionaly cause confusion in diagnosis. This review considers a few important disorders which manifest with white matter changes on MRI and create diagnostic difficulties in a population in the tropics.
Computerised tomography in Tolosa-Hunt syndrome
Pandit Lekha,Rao Suryanarayana
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1994,
Abstract: Twelve patients who satisfied the clinical criteria of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS), underwent axial computerised tomography (CT) scan of the head. Two patients had abnormalities detected in the cavernous sinus on the affected side which supported the clinical diagnosis. This coupled with steroid responsiveness and long-term asymptomatic follow-up firmly established the diagnosis of THS. We discuss the computerised tomographic findings seen in THS and the relevance of using accurate imaging techniques as the first line of investigation in these cases
Use of intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration
Gopal Lekha,Sharma Tarun
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2007,
Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is now considered an important and leading cause of blindness among elderly patients in developed and developing countries. AMD has two forms, dry and wet; both can lead to visual loss. However, occurrence of subfoveal choroidal neovascular (CNV) membrane in the wet form results in severe visual impairment. Treatment options for choroidal neovascularization are available in order to maintain and in some cases improve vision. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used to treat both classic and occult membranes. It has known to cause choroidal hypoperfusion and production of vascular endothelial growth factor. Intravitreal steroid can possibly reduce the damage caused due to these undesirable effects. In the recent past, intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) has been used extensively as an adjunct to PDT in AMD in order to reduce the number of PDT sessions and evaluate possible beneficial effects on vision. This article reviews the pharmacological attributes of triamcinolone, available evidence of its use as monotherapy or combination therapy to treat AMD, ocular side-effects thereof and ongoing clinical trials on IVTA.
Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies on Tourism in Nepal
Lekha Nath Bhandari
Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ctbijis.v2i1.10817
Abstract: Favorable climatic conditions at destinations are key attractions for tourists. Weather can ruin the vacation while climate can devastate a holiday destination. Climate change not only impacts on tourism directly by changes in temperature, extreme weather events and other climatic factors, but it will also transform the natural environment that attracts tourists. Despite the global nature of tourism industry and its economic contributions, scholars of climate change research have hardly acknowledged the threat of climate change to the tourism industry. Tourism scholars have rectified this situation to a certain extent by demonstrating how the industry has become vulnerable to climate change and drawing attention to the need for adaptation and mitigation strategies specific to this sector. Thus, this paper will provide an overview of climate change challenges in tourism destinations especially in the mountain regions, with specific reference to Nepal. It outlines several adaptation and mitigation strategies at the local, regional and national levels. Climatic effects on high mountains are very specific; climate change is likely to trigger the rates and intensity of natural hazards such as landslides, avalanches and flooding with dramatic consequences for tourism destinations. The paper outlines adaptation strategies for tourism stakeholders, resident communities and governments and emphasizes that climate change strategies in the tourism sector must be considered as a collaborative effort, with considerations for institutional development, diversification of opportunities, for the sustainable development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ctbijis.v2i1.10817 Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies Vol.2(1) 2014: 113-126
A Time History Method for Analysing Operational Piping Vibrations  [PDF]
Subrata Saha
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2012.26038
Abstract: Vibration failure of piping is a serious problem and a matter of concern for safety and reliability of plant operations. Fatigue is the main cause of such failures. Due to the complexity of the phenomenon no closed form design solutions are available. In our study an analytical technique based on the theory of vibrations in the time domain has been presented. Using the inverse theory, the problem has been reduced to a system of Volterra Integral equations to be solved simultaneously at every time step. The solution of the inverse problem may be used in the conventional method to calculate stresses and end reactions which are important from the perspective of engineering design and condition monitoring. The method is robust, simple and can be easily adopted by practicing engineers.
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