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Survey of special needs in physically disabled people: A qualitative research
Ali Farhoudian,Leila Soleimaninia,Masoud Gharib,Mohammad Hassan Farhadi
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: After sanction of "the rights of disabled people convention" United Nations Organization have been stressed more on dealing with this group's needs. Therewith, most of countries in the world have been committed in this field. Therefore with consideration of importance of identifying the needs in disabled people and making policies for them, this study conducted in order to identify the special needs in physically disabled people.Material and Methods: This article is a part of a qualitative research with grounded theory method. 15 physically disabled people of Tehran were selected through a purposeful sampling participated in study. The main method for collecting data was semi-structured interview that continued until theoretical saturation of information. Data was analyzed with Strauss & Corbin coding manner or continued comparison and the assessor's viewpoints method is used for validity promotion of data.Results: Totally, most important domains of special needs in disabled group were: family and relatives, education, movement and transportation, building and places (houses and public places), social participation and occupation, treatment and rehabilitation services, and people's attitude toward their problems.Conclusion: The results indicated that for promoting social participation and function independency in disabled people, should be emphasis on "equality of opportunities" in society rather than "disability". Thus, public systems and services should be available equally for all, such as physical environments and places, housing, transport system, educational and vocational opportunities, and socio-cultural life like equipments for sport and amusement. Then, physically disabled people can reach to a life with more quality and same with others.
Conversion of ethanol to acetone & other produces using nano-sensor SnO2(110): Ab initio DFT  [PDF]
Leila Mahdavian
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.36065
Abstract: The material considered in this study, SnO2 (110), has a widespread use as gas sensor and oxygen vacancies are known to act as active catalytic sites for the adsorption of small mo-lecules. In the following calculations crystal line SnO2 nano-crystal have been considered. The grains lattice, which has the rutile structure of the bulk material, includes oxygen vacancies and depositing a gaseous molecule, either ethanol, above an atom on the grain surface, generates the adsorbed system. The conduc-tance has a functional relationship with the structure and the distance molecule of the na-no- crystal and its dependence on these quanti-ties parallels the one of the binding energy. The calculations have quantum mechanical detail and are based on a semi-empirical (MNDO me-thod), which is applied to the evaluation of both the electronic structure and of the conductance. We study the structural, total energy, thermo-dynamic and conductive properties of absorp-tion C2H5OH on nano-crystal, which convert to acetaldehyde and acetone.
The Impact of First Language Intonational Clue Selection on Second Language Comprehension  [PDF]
Leila Barati, Reza Biria
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2011.12005
Abstract: Comprehension is closely related not only to the knowledge of words and syntax, but also the pragmatic concerns of the discourse. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of the intonational clues selection of Iranian teenagers' and young adults’ Persian listening comprehension ability on their English learning as a second language. According to Buck (2003), in listening comprehension the input in the form of sounds and intonational clues often conveys additional information. In this study 60 male and female teenagers (13 - 19) and 60 male and female young adults (20 - 26) were selected randomly based on Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Each group was randomly assigned to two sub groups; namely, experimental (EX) and control groups (CG), 15 participants in each group. During the study two fiction and non-fiction passages, at first in Persian and then in English, were read to participants. The passages for participants in CG were read without applying speaker’s intonation changes but they were read for participants in EX with applying speaker’s intonation changes. In this study factors as age and gender are important because the results showed that the difference between two groups with different age ranges was significant, and participants’ inferencing, correct clue selection and listening comprehension ability in the experimental group was superior to the control group in the first language (Persian) and it also influenced positively second language learning and inferencing ability (English).
Study and Enhanced Design of RF Dual Band Bandpass Filter Validation and Confirmation of Experimental Measurements  [PDF]
Mohamed Mabrouk, Leila Bousbia
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2011.24041
Abstract: Dual band bandpass filter is designed and optimized for RF wireless applications. The performances of that RF dual band filter are improved especially parameters describing the insertion loss, return losses and rejection. Dual-band bandpass filter using stub loaded resonators is designed and characterized. Theoretical results are compared with experimental data. This comparison shows that the magnitude of reflection coefficient S11 from ADSTM simulation is better than 28.0 dB, and the insertion loss S21 is less than 0.5 dB. The two rejections are also better than 32.0 dB. The simulated results also show that two central frequencies are located at desired 1.82 and 2.95 GHz. Comparison of measured and simulated results shows frequency drift. The main reason for this frequency shifting is due to some uncertainties. These are obviously due to geometrical and physical parameters H and εr respectively of Duroid substrate used during design and measurements.
Phonological Analysis in Al-sahifa Al-Sajjādiyya ( Fī Al-isteāde Supplication)  [PDF]
Afarin Zare, Leila Dianat
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2012.24024
Abstract: Implication, taken from the root “implicate”, means directing; like the implication of smoke for fire. The denotative meaning of implication is: forming a meaning in mind by imagining the word. Word visualizetion in the human’s mind is done through different means such as: structure of the word, role of the word in the clause, use of the dictionary, style and manner of pronouncing a word, and phonemes in a word. The present study tries to analyze” Fī Al-isteāde Supplication “from Al-sahifa Al-Sajjādiyya based on the trends of phonology. Also, it tries to show the role of phonemes, having been used in Al-sahifa Al-Sajjādiyya, in communicating the message to the reader. In this article, the fact that the interrelatedness of form and content is obviously seen in all the supplications of Al-sahifa Al-Sajjādiyya is unraveled. The most important finding of this research is that all the phonemes employed in Al-sahifa are used as they are appropriate to the context. When Imām Sajjād is talking about God’s mercy, he uses soft and delicate sounds but when he is talking about heavenly retribution, he uses harsh and bitter sounds in a manner that one cannot replace one with another. The sounds have such an effect on the text that we can appreciate their meanings by merely listening to them.
Genetic variability in ultrasound records of breast muscle in a broiler breeding program  [PDF]
Leila de Genova Gaya
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.58A2001
Abstract:

Breast weight is one of the most economically important traits in the poultry industry, but direct selection for weight is expensive. The use of ultrasonography enables in vivo measurements of the broiler’s breast muscle size, which may be much more feasible for broiler selection. Previous studies of broilers concluded that ultrasound of the breast muscle is feasible and favorable for meat production. According to previously obtained genetic parameters, breast weight could be efficiently improved by ultrasound of the breast muscle. The use of ultrasonography for the indirect selection of breast weight does not affect the body composition or meat quality of broilers, despite the meat’s paleness and shear force; therefore, the use of ultrasound as a selection criterion might be a useful monitoring tool. Studies on the utilization of ultrasound in broiler breeding programs allow a better understanding of the relationship between traits of economic interest and the establishment of the selection schemes.

Progressive Collapse of RC Frames Due to Heavy Impact Loads of Tsunami  [PDF]
Abdullah Keyvani, Leila Keyvani
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2013.33020
Abstract:


Progressive collapse is a relatively rare event, as it requires both an abnormal loading to initiate the local damage and a structure that lacks adequate continuity, ductility and redundancy to resist the spread of damage. However, significant casualties can result when collapse occurs. Heavy impact loads due to tsunami against building can be one of the scenarios of progressive collapse during tsunami disaster. Since progressive collapse includes material and geometry nonlinearity during collapse propagation, in the present research capability of 2 models for the material nonlinearity in simulating actual behavior of structures during collapse is compared with recent experimental results of a Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame. The results demonstrate that a material nonlinearity model, that is based on the idealized component load-deformation behavior, is not a proper representation for the real behavior of structures during progressive collapse and is so conservative.


Assessment of the Contribution of Road Traffic to Greenhouse Emissions: A Case of an Algerian City  [PDF]
Aouragh Leila, Bourmada Noureddine
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.513130
Abstract: Rapid urbanisation brings about increase in air pollution. These emissions are generally linked to the production of energy, to industrial activities and to transport in the densely inhabited areas. Estimating the pollutants quantities released in the air is an important stage in the evaluation of air quality. However, the problem of air pollution in urban areas is a problem in all Algerian cities. Similar to all Algerian big cities, the city of Batna has become a major urban area with an ever increasing fleet of motor vehicles most of which are practically old ones. This state of affairs increases the demand in fuel consumption and undeniably intensifies polluting emissions. As the situation goes, it has become the utmost urgency to wonder about a possible support that may be given to this sector in order to evaluate how air quality is managed in a durable way. The main objective of this study is to assess the quantity of CO2 pollutant known as the most significant greenhouse gas emission from traffic. The approach used is mainly based on a number of assumptions, which allows us to find the amount of 192 g/km/day CO2 released into the urban atmosphere of the city of Batna.
On El Naschie’s Fractal-Cantorian Space-Time and Dark Energy—A Tutorial Review  [PDF]
Leila Marek-Crnjac
Natural Science (NS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2015.713058
Abstract: This tutorial review is dedicated to the work of the outstanding Egyptian theoretical physicist and engineering scientist Prof. Mohamed El Naschie. Every physics student knows the well-known Einstein’s mass-energy equation, E=mc2, but unfortunately for physics, few know El Naschie’s modification, E(O)=mc2/22, and El Naschie’s dark energy equation E(D)=mc2(21/22) although this new insight has truly far reaching implications. This paper gives a short tutorial review of El Naschie’s fractal-Cantorian space-time as well as dark energy. Emphasis is put on the fundamental concept of Cantor set, fractal dimensions, zero set, empty set, and Casimir effect.
A TSK-Type Recurrent Neuro-Fuzzy Systems for Fault Prognosis  [PDF]
Rafik Mahdaoui, Leila Hayet Mouss
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.57055
Abstract: As a result from the demanding of process safety, reliability and environmental constraints, a called of fault detection and diagnosis system become more and more important. In this article some basic aspects of TSK (Takigi Sugeno Kang) neuro-fuzzy techniques for the prognosis and diagnosis of manufacturing systems are presented. In particular, a neuro-fuzzy model that can be used for the identification and the simulation of faults prognosis models is described. The presented model is motivated by a cooperative neuro-fuzzy approach based on a vectorized recurrent neural network architecture. The neuro-fuzzy architecture maps the residuals into two classes: a one of fixed direction residuals and another one of faults belonging to rotary kiln.
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