Breast weight is one of the most economically important traits in the poultry industry, but direct selection for weight is expensive. The use of ultrasonography enables in vivo measurements of the broiler’s breast muscle size, which may be much more feasible for broiler selection. Previous studies of broilers concluded that ultrasound of the breast muscle is feasible and favorable for meat production. According to previously obtained genetic parameters, breast weight could be efficiently improved by ultrasound of the breast muscle. The use of ultrasonography for the indirect selection of breast weight does not affect the body composition or meat quality of broilers, despite the meat’s paleness and shear force; therefore, the use of ultrasound as a selection criterion might be a useful monitoring tool. Studies on the utilization of ultrasound in broiler breeding programs allow a better understanding of the relationship between traits of economic interest and the establishment of the selection schemes.
Progressive collapse is a relatively rare event, as it requires both an abnormal loading to initiate the local damage and a structure that lacks adequate continuity, ductility and redundancy to resist the spread of damage. However, significant casualties can result when collapse occurs. Heavy impact loads due to tsunami against building can be one of the scenarios of progressive collapse during tsunami disaster. Since progressive collapse includes material and geometry nonlinearity during collapse propagation, in the present research capability of 2 models for the material nonlinearity in simulating actual behavior of structures during collapse is compared with recent experimental results of a Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame. The results demonstrate that a material nonlinearity model, that is based on the idealized component load-deformation behavior, is not a proper representation for the real behavior of structures during progressive collapse and is so conservative.