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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 25246 matches for " Lee "
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Abdominal Fat Reduction through Cryolipolysis  [PDF]
Doyeop Lee, Kyurae Lee
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.69005
Abstract: Although several studies showed the efficacy and safety from this procedure, the comparative assessment of adipose tissue by cryolipolysis has not been studied until now. Therefore we investigated the quantitative change of cross sectional areas of abdominal SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue) and VAT (visceral adipose tissue) following cryolipolysis. A prospective study for twelve subjects with a single session of cryolipolysis on abdomen was performed. We assessed for their height, weight, and waist circumferences, body contours by photographs, and the cross sectional areas of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were measured at umbilicus level by computerized tomography for 2 months. The cross sectional areas in SAT reduced from 243.3 ± 24.7 to 238.5 ± 40.7 cm2 at 2 months post-treatment. Those of VAT reduced from 141.3 ± 46.4 to 125.1 ± 42.8 cm2 at 2 months post-treatment. Cross sectional areas of VAT, and waist circumferences were significantly reduced by 16.2 cm2, 4.1 cm respectively. Additionally visual improvement without unexpected adverse events was noted. In conclusion a single session cryolipolysis demonstrated to reduce visceral adipose tissue as well as waist circumferences tissue for 2 months. Further controlled study would be needed to evaluate for reduction of visceral adipose tissue by cryolipolysis.
Exponential Ergodicity and β-Mixing Property for Generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Processes  [PDF]
Oesook Lee
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.21004
Abstract: The generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is derived from a bivariate Lévy process and is suggested as a continuous time version of a stochastic recurrence equation [1]. In this paper we consider the generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and provide sufficient conditions under which the process is exponentially ergodic and hence holds the expo-nentially β-mixing property. Our results can cover a wide variety of areas by selecting suitable Lévy processes and be used as fundamental tools for statistical analysis concerning the processes. Well known stochastic volatility models in finance such as Lévy-driven Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is examined as a special case.
Coastal Planning Strategies for Adaptation to Sea Level Rise: A Case Study of Mokpo, Korea  [PDF]
Yumi Lee
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research (JBCPR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2014.21007
Abstract: Climate change and sea level rise necessitate adaptation strategies for coastal areas. This paper showcases five strategies for sea level rise adaptation: hard protection, soft protection, accommodation, retreat, and attack. This study proposes adaptation measures and a phased development strategy for coastal areas of Mokpo, an old port city on the southwestern tip of the Korean Peninsula that has been expanded by land reclamation. Mokpo presently experiences frequent flooding during high-water and storm events; due to their low elevation and land subsidence, most of the reclaimed areas are susceptible to future inundation via sea level rise. The fundamental adaptation strategies for the impact areas are: hard protection of important infrastructures via multi-tiered terraces; the retreat of coastal developments accompanied by green buffer zones such as wetlands and parks to accommodate temporary inundation; and up-leveling the ground for new development and phased relocation of existing development. Through the case study of Mokpo, the paper emphasizes the importance of resilient planning strategies for urban development, and highlights both the challenges and opportunities for sea level rise adaptation.
Study on the Classification of Speech Anxiety Using Q-Methodology Analysis  [PDF]
SeoYoung Lee
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2014.23008
Abstract: Public speaking is one of the cornerstones of mass communication, the influence of which has only been enhanced with the advent of the modern era. Yet despite its importance, up to 40% of the world’s population feels anxious when faced with the prospect of presenting in front of an audience (Wilbur, 1981). However, public speaking anxiety is human condition that can be understood and with effort, overcome by sufferers. Based on theoretical research, this study presents an empirical investigation of speech anxiety. The research uses Q-methodology to generate categories of speakers and then draws on the PQ-method program to suggest ways for speakers to improve their speaking confidence based on these categories. This research is of a value to those who are interested in speech anxiety for therapeutic or pedagogical practice.
Protecting the Coastline from the Effects of Climate Change: Adaptive Design for the Coastal Areas of Gangneung, Korea  [PDF]
Yumi Lee
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research (JBCPR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2015.32011
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to present design strategies to enable coastal areas to adapt to climate change and maintain the coastlines by addressing the environmental and urban issues. Gangneung is a tourist attraction situated on South Korea’s east coast, and there is an urgent need for integrated research on strategies to prevent the loss of sandy beaches and the damage caused by storm surges and high swell. This research has two objectives: The first is to offer an overview and describe the characteristics of exemplary projects carried out to manage the storm damage while maintaining the coastlines. The second is to propose a design model that can be applied to coastal areas susceptible to climate change by analyzing the design strategies and the current conditions of the Gangneung coastal area. In the case of Gangneung, the damage caused by the storm surges and high swells are more severe compared to inundation caused by sea level rise because of the steep slope and deep water. Therefore, adaptive design strategies are mainly focused on accommodation and retreat strategies that consider these characteristics by moving the coastal roads behind the pine forest and raising the coastal buildings to connect the coast to the forest and to prevent coastal erosion. This research has the potential to be used as an exemplary design adaptation for coastal erosion as well as a basis for regulating the land use policy in areas susceptible to flood by establishing guidelines for publicly funded developments, and preparing long-term relocation plans for the existing coastal developments to create a sustainable and resilient future for the coastal areas.
Prize Allocation in Contests with Size Effect through Prizes  [PDF]
Sanghack Lee, Shi Young Lee
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.22038
Abstract: We examine prize allocation in contests in which the number of contenders affects prizes. The government allocates a fixed prize between two groups of contenders. The prize share of each group is determined endogenously through the inter-group share contest. Then, the contenders in each group respectively compete for the prize. Examining prize allocation in such contests, we obtain the following results. The contenders expend more resources when they cooperate than when they contribute non-cooperatively in the inter-group share contest. The size effect through prizes increases the prize share of the larger group. The larger group can even obtain the larger share if the size effect through prizes is sufficiently strong.
Antimicrobial Activity of Eucosterol Oligosaccharides Isolated from Bulb of Squill (Scilla scilloides)  [PDF]
Hyang Burm Lee, Sang Myung Lee
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2013.41016
Abstract: Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract from bulb of Scilla scilloides as well as the purified eucosterol oligosaccharides (EOs) against bacteria, fungi and alga was evaluated in vitro using paper disc bioassay. EOs including scillascilloside E-1, E-2, E-3 and G-1 were isolated from the bulbs by methanol extraction, gel filtration on Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. The metabolites were identified by MS (HR-FAB-MS) and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral data analyses. Methanol (MeOH) extract and purified compounds, EOs showed a selective inhibitory activity against eukaryotic cells including fungal species such as Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Pyricularia oryzae and an alga such as Chlorella regulsris at the concentration of 200 μg/paper disc, but little active against bacteria. Out of four EO compounds, Scilla-scilloside E-3 revealed the highest activity. These results show that the MeOH extract and EOs from the medicinal plant, S. scilloides, may be applied as a natural fungicide or a food preservative for control of molds.
Power and Time Efficient IP Lookup Table Design Using Partitioned TCAMs  [PDF]
Youngjung Ahn, Yongsuk Lee, Gyungho Lee
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2013.43041
Abstract: This paper proposes a power and time efficient scheme for designing IP lookup tables. The proposed scheme uses partitioned Ternary Content Addressable Memories (TCAMs) that store IP lookup tables. The proposed scheme enables O(1) time penalty for updating an IP lookup table. The partitioned TCAMs allow an update done by a simple insertion without the need for routing table sorting. The organization of the routing table of the proposed scheme is based on a partition with respect to the output port for routing with a smaller priority encoder. The proposed scheme still preserves a similar storage requirement and clock rate to those of existing designs. Furthermore, this scheme reduces power consumption due to using a partitioned routing table.
Improvements to the Fluoride Reactivation Method by Simple Organic Extraction for Retrospective Detection of Exposure to the Organophosphorus Nerve Agents in Human Plasma  [PDF]
Jin Young Lee, Yong Han Lee
International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography (IJAMSC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijamsc.2014.23007
Abstract: A rapid and simple organic extraction method for the determination of the chemical warfare agent, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin, GB) in human plasma has been developed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). In the course of method development, several organic solvents have been screened and chloroform show a low background and increase signal to noise ratio of GB among other organic solvents. Especially, the organic extraction method of reactivated GB from the human plasma has a 30% greater recovery yield than solid-phase ex-traction (SPE). This simple extraction method was successfully applied to the trace analysis of nerve agents in human plasma in the 3rd Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) confidence building exercise on biomedical sample analysis.
The Moderation Effects of Perceptions of Organizational Politics on the Relationship between Work Stress and Turnover Intention: An Empirical Study about Civilian in Skeleton Government of China  [PDF]
Guangjin Zhang, Gabriel Lee
iBusiness (IB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2010.23034
Abstract: It is disastrous for organization that valued employee leave their jobs. Many researches have found that work stress is consistently and strongly related to intentions to turnover. Therefore, studying buffers of the stress-turnover intention relationship is important. This paper examines the situational variables such as perceptions of organizational politics, as moderators of the stress-turnover relationship. An investigation from 304 employees in Chinese skeleton government found that: lower levels of perceived politics will minimize turnover intentions resulted from work stress. These findings are helpful to understand the unique relationships between these variables and provide specific information for managers to retain valued employees.
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