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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 113095 matches for " Le?i?-To?evski Du?ica "
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Moral judgment of alcohol addicts
Mladenovi? Ivica,Dimitrijevi? Ivan,Lei?-To?evski Duica
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/sarh1008456m
Abstract: Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional) exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics) and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population). The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3) and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive) non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05) between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.
Post-traumatic stress disorder and coping strategies in psychotraumatized refugees
?avi? Tamara,Lei?-To?evski Duica,Pejovi? Mirko
Medicinski Pregled , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0802011c
Abstract: Introduction. In extreme life events basic assumptions are frequently reassessed and changed. Therefore, trauma requires re-education. Effective coping strategies enable individual to tolerate, minimize, accept or ignore what one cannot manage and to moder-ate the consequences of stressful, traumatic events. Materials and Methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate coping strategies in refugees with post-traumatic stress disorder prior and after group cognitive-behavioural therapy. The sample included 70 refu-gees who experienced multiple stressors such as organized violence, ethnic conflicts, bombing, expelling from their homes and life in exile. Impact Event Scales-Revised, Ways of Coping-Revised, Scale of Cognitive Self-regulation and Scale of Coping Strategies were administered before and after six months of group cognitive-behavioural therapy. Results. Post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees after therapy significantly decreased. Cognitive self-regulation was improved by moving locus of control from external to internal resources. Coping was qualitatively different, with a wider repertoire of adaptive strategies. Discussion. Cognitive group work facilitates processes of grieving, working-through of traumatic material, increasing emotional awareness and developing creativity in coping. Conclusion. Our findings highlight the positive impact of cognitive-behavioural treatment on post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic adjustment. .
Medicolegal aspects of hospital treatment of violent mentally ill persons
Jovanovi? Aleksandar,Ja?ovi?-Ga?i? Miroslava,Lei?-To?evski Duica
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0906292j
Abstract: Introduction. This paper deals with medicolegal aspects of the hospital treatment of patients suffering from severe mental disorders and who are prone to violent behavior, dangerous to self and others. Violent acts in this study were defined as deliberate and nonconsensual acts of actual, attempted or threatened harm to a person or persons, and classified into categories of any type of violence, physical violence and nonphysical violence, which is in accordance with approaches used in other risk assessment researches. Outline of Cases. The authors present four cases of mentally ill inpatients whose violent behavior toward self or other persons resulted in self-destruction and physical aggression against other persons. The presented cases involved: 1) selfinjury in a patient with acute organic mental disorder after jumping through a hospital window, 2) suicide by drowning of a patient with acute mental disorder after escaping from intensive care unit, 3) suicide in a depressive patient after escaping from a low-security psychiatry unit, 4) physical violence against body and life of other persons in a patient with chronic mental disorder. Conclusion. The presented cases are considered to be rare in clinical practice and risk of violent behavior and the consequent danger of mentally ill inpatients may be efficiently predicted and prevented with appropriate hospital management based on 1) repeated escalation of violent behavior and 2) protection of the patient and others. Hence, if the physician, in order to prevent harmful consequences, does not apply all the necessary measures, including appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as treatment in an adequate setting, such act is against the Criminal Law of the Republic of Serbia which sanctions physician's negligence. Also, according to the Law on Obligations of the Republic of Serbia this presents a legal ground for damage claim and the requirement of liability for nonmaterial damage within a civil procedure.
Digeorge syndrome: A case report
Popovi?-Deu?i? Smiljka,Lei?-To?evski Duica,Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica,Dragani?-Gaji? Saveta
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/sarh1110681p
Abstract: Introduction. DiGeorge syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by deletion of chromosome 22. The main features are congenital heart disease, absence or hypoplasia of thymus (with consecutive immunodeficiency and infections), hypoparathyroidism with consecutive hypocalcaemia, gastrointestinal problems, Delayed psychomotor development, abnormalities of head and face, tendency to develop seizures and psychiatric disorders. Syndrome can be detected prenatally, or during early development, which is of great importance for preventive and therapeutic measures. Death rate is high during the first year of life, mostly because of congenital heart disease. With prompt diagnosis and treatment most of the children can survive to adulthood, but they are children with special needs requiring continual care and supervision (because of metal retardation, seizures, neurological and psychiatric disorders). Case Outline. A seven-year-old boy underwent surgical correction of congenital heart disease soon after the birth. Since the age of four years he developed seizures, partially controlled by antiepileptic therapy. Entering the seventh year of age he displayed severe auto and heteroaggressive behaviour. His condition has improved by the introduction of intensive psychiatric and defectological treatment, and daily counselling with his mother the child improved in the sense of calming down, better social communication and acquiring some self-help specific skills. Conclusion. Symptoms of DiGeorge syndrome can be detected soon after the birth, especially that concerning congenital hearth disease. A prompt diagnosis and surgical intervention can save the child’s life. Because of many other symptoms, many diagnostic procedures focused on this syndrome are to be performed, followed by long lasting stimulative treatment and treatment of seizures and psychiatric disorders.
Internet addiction: A case report
Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica,Popovi?-Deu?i? Smiljka,Dragani?-Gaji? Saveta,Lei?-To?evski Duica
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0902086p
Abstract: Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological) gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction). Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behavior. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction.
Adjustment disorders in hospital treated adolescents: A follow-up study
Popovi?-Deu?i? Smiljka,Mitkovi? Marija,Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica,Lei?-To?evski Duica
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/sarh1206344p
Abstract: Introduction. Adjustment disorders represent a frequent diagnostic entity especially among adolescents. They involve a wide spectrum of various emotional and behaviour problems. Objective. The aim was to investigate characteristics of diagnostic category known as adjustment disorders among hospital treated adolescents for the first time at the Clinical Department for Children and Adolescents of the Institute of Mental Health in Belgrade, during five consecutive years, as well as to investigate the outcome of the disorder in follow-up period. Methods. We conducted a retrospective investigation of the first time hospital treated adolescents from Belgrade with discharge diagnosis of adjustment disorders during 2000-2004. The follow up was conducted 5-10 years after a first discharge from the hospital. Results. During the investigated period 75 adolescents from Belgrade were hospitalized for the first time with diagnosis adjustment disorder. From the studied patients the main sample was formed that included 24 (32%) males and 51 (68%) females. After 5-10 years a follow-up of 52 patients was conducted (sample at follow-up) which included 16 (30.77%) males and 36 (69.23%) females. Of the main sample, 70% of the patients were under follow-up. After the first hospitalization 58% of adolescents continued with further psychiatric treatment, either as rehospitalized or out-of-hospital patients. Conclusion. Our findings showed that 38% of adolescents under follow-up for 5-10 years after the first discharge from hospital with the diagnosis adjustment disorders had multiple hospitalizations. The outcome of the disorder among these patients was the worst, because three-quarters of the patients were rediagnosed in the follow-up period with a new psychiatric disorder, often from psychotic spectrum.
Sexual dimorphism and specificities of psychopharmacological treatment in women
Dragani?-Gaji? Saveta,Lei?-To?evski Duica,Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica,Popovi?-Deu?i? Smiljka
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2013, DOI: 10.2298/sarh1302116d
Abstract: The scope of gender related differences observed in mentally ill persons provides a major source of inference about the role of gonadal steroids in brain function and behavior. Reported gender dimorphism in psychiatry includes the following: prevalence of certain mental disorders specific to female gender, phenomenology and treatment characteristics, i.e. response to the applied psychopharmacotherapy. Structural and functional relationship between the hormonal system and central nervous system is closely correlated with vulnerability to various psychopathological disturbances in biologically different stages in women. It has been observed, for instance, that the association of gonadal steroid activity with serotonin is relevant to mood change in premenstrual and postpartum mood disturbances. Gender related hormonal fluctuations may cause or be correlated with the development of several gender-related psychopathological disturbances. The aim of this article is to review the literature concerning gender-related specificities of psychopharmacological treatment of some of the most important mental disorders in women, such as affective disorder in menopause, premenstrual syndrome and postpartum mood disorders.
Panic disorder: Psychobiological aspects of personality dimensions
Dragani?-Gaji? Saveta,Lei?-To?evski Duica,Paunovi? Vladimir R.,Cveji? Vesna
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0504129d
Abstract: Attempts to understand the underlying mechanisms of association between psychological factors and panic disorder have been mostly based on psychodynamic description. Evidence of the importance of serotonergic (5-HT) system in panic disorder (PD), however, has substanti ally increased in recent years. OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to determine whether there was a specific personality profile of panic disorder patients and how it was related to possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying personality dimensions. PATIENTS AND METHODS Sample consisted of 14 inpatients with ICD-X diagnosis of panic disorder and 34 healthy control subjects. Personality dimensions were assessed by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201) and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). To assess central 5-HT function, platelet monoamine-oxidase (MAO) activity was measured. RESULTS In panic disorder group, higher scores of histrionic, depressive and hypochondriac subscales and significant increase of harm avoidance (HA) scale as well as low MAO activity were found. Negative correlation was established between MAO activity and psychopathic deviance MMPI scale. CONCLUSION The obtained results might indicate a specific personality profile of patients with panic disorder, which is characterized by high neuroticism, fearfulness, inhibition, shyness and apprehensive worry. Low MAO activity and high HA scores possibly indicate underlying hyperserotonergic state. The observed correlation between personality traits and MAO activity provide additional support for the hypothesized functional relationship between underlying central monoaminergic activity and temperament traits associated with anxiety, depression and impulsivity.
Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness
Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica,Lei?-To?evski Duica,Tenjovi? Lazar,Dragani?-Gaji? Saveta
Medicinski Pregled , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0708382p
Abstract: Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI) and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .
Marital dysfunction and personality characteristics of partners
Dragani?-Gaji? Saveta,Lei?-To?evski Duica,?alovska-Hercog Nevena,Naguli? Desanka
Medicinski Pregled , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0504175d
Abstract: Introduction A number of studies indicate that an early trauma is of extreme importance (most often experienced in the family of origin) in developing personality disorders. Researches on correlations between family dysfunction and individual psychopathology have been rare and controversial. The reason for this stems from an attempt to establish links between traditional medical models and systemic family therapy. The aim of this research was to explore specific personality structures of married couples and the way they relate to the type of dysfunction within the partner relationship. Material and methods The sample consisted of 25 families in the middle of divorce. The examinees were aged 25-45. Specific interactional behavioral patterns were examined by Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), while personality profile data were obtained using Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI). Results and conclusions In both groups dependency and obsessivness were marked, while males also presented with marked narcissism. Related to structural personality disorders, we have found only a group of men with significantly increased paranoid dimension. Concerning clinical syndromes, the obtained results revealed anxiety and depressive disorder in both genders and a tendency towards alcohol abuse among men. Results indicated to correlation of communication-interactive family patterns on one hand, and certain personality traits on the other. .
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