Abstract:
We have found a security risk in the Liu's cypher based on random signals and feedback, when it utilizes a large class of noises for communication in its most secure state, the steady state. For the vulnerability to exist, the noise must have a spectrum which can be transformed to white-like noise by linear filtering. For the cracking, we utilize the natural properties of power density spectra and autocorrelation functions. We introduce and demonstrate the method for Lorentzian spectra. Some of the implications of the results concern the transient operation during changing bits, where the modulation products of noise cannot be band-limited therefore the cypher is vulnerable. We propose the application of line filters to provide a proper spectral shape and to improve the security.

Abstract:
The width and shape of photon burst histograms pose significant limitations to the identification of single molecules in micro/nano-fluidic channels, and the nature of these histograms is not fully understood. To reach a deeper understanding, we performed computer simulations based on a Gaussian beam intensity profile with various fluidic channel diameters and assuming (i) a deterministic (noise-free) case, (ii) photon emission/absorption noise, and (iii) photon noise with diffusion. Photon noise in narrow channels yields a Gaussian burst distribution while additional strong diffusion produces skewed histograms. We use the fluctuating residence time picture [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2386-2388 (1998)] and conclude that the skewness of the photon number distribution is caused by the longitudinal diffusive component of the motion of the molecules as they traverse the laser beam. In the case of strong diffusion in narrow channels, this effect leads to a log-normal distribution. We show that the same effect can transform the separate peaks of the photon burst histograms of multiple molecule mixtures into a single log-normal shape.

Abstract:
Photonic burst histograms can be used to identify single protein molecules in micro/nano-fluidic channels provided the width of the histogram is narrow. Photonic shot noise and residence time fluctuations, caused by longitudinal diffusion, are the major sources of the histogram width. This Communication is a sequel to an earlier Letter of ours [L. L. Kish et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 143121 (2011)] and demonstrates that, for a given diffusion coefficient, an increase of the drift velocity enhances the relative shot noise and decreases the relative residence time fluctuations. This leads to an optimum drift velocity which minimizes the histogram width and maximizes the ability to identify single molecules, which is an important result for applications.

Abstract:
Hyperglycemia, which occurs in the perioperative period during cardiac surgery, has been shown to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The management of perioperative hyperglycemia during coronary artery bypass graft surgery and all cardiac surgical procedures has been the focus of intensive study in recent years. This report will paper the pathophysiology responsible for the detrimental effects of perioperative hyperglycemia during cardiac surgery, show how continuous insulin infusions in the perioperative period have improved outcomes, and discuss the results of trials designed to determine what level of a glycemic control is necessary to achieve optimal clinical outcomes. 1. Introduction The incidence of diabetes mellitus in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery continues to increase and it is now estimated that nearly 30–40% of CABG patients will have diabetes mellitus or the metabolic syndrome [1]. Patients with diabetes mellitus have had worse outcomes following CABG [2–4]. They have higher mortality and a higher incidence of renal failure, stroke, sternal wound infections, and increased need for inotropic support [5–8]. Their length of stay is prolonged and hospital costs are increased [9]. Furthermore, diabetic CABG patients are more likely to require a repeat revascularization procedure, have a 24% higher risk of readmission for cardiac-related issues, and a 44% higher risk for rehospitalization for any cause [10, 11]. These outcomes were thought to be irreversible since diabetic patients have more diffuse coronary disease, abnormal fibrinolytic and platelet function and impaired endothelial function which leads to lower graft patency and ultimately increased perioperative mortality, reduced long-term survival, and less freedom from recurrent ischemic events [12–15]. In this paper, we will show that by achieving glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing CABG surgery, perioperative morbidity and mortality can be reduced, long-term survival improved, and the incidence of recurrent ischemic events decreased. 2. Detrimental Effects of Hyperglycemia on the Cardiovascular System In order to understand the beneficial effects of glycemic control during CABG surgery in patients with hyperglycemia, it is important to understand the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia on the cardiovascular system. In the nonischemic myocardium, the primary energy substrate is free fatty acids [16]. However, during ischemia when free fatty acids cannot be metabolized, increased levels of free fatty acids can

Abstract:
Driven by analogies with state vectors of quantum informatics and noise-based logic, we propose a general scheme and elements of neural circuitry for processing and addressing information in the brain. Specifically, we consider random (e.g., Poissonian) trains of finite-duration spikes, and, using the idealized concepts of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, offer a procedure for generating 2^N-1 orthogonal vectors out of N partially overlapping trains ("neuro-bits"). We then show that these vectors can be used to construct 2^(2^N-1)-1 different superpositions which represent the same number of logic values when carrying or routing information. In quantum informatics the above numbers are the same, however, the present logic scheme is more advantageous because it is deterministic in the sense that the presence of a vector in the spike train is detected by an appropriate coincidence circuit. For this reason it does not require time averaging or repeated measurements of the kind used in standard cross-correlation analysis or in quantum computing.

Abstract:
We introduce a scheme for controlling physical and other quantities; utilizing noise-based logic for control-and-optimization with high dimensionality, similarly how the Hilbert space of quantum informatics can be utilized for such purpose. As a concrete realization of the noise-based control scheme, we introduce "Dictatorial control" where noise-based logic results in an exponential speedup of operation.

Abstract:
A simple and general proof is given for the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) key exchange system under practical conditions. The unconditional security for ideal circumstances, which is based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics, is found to prevail even under slightly non-ideal conditions. This security level is guaranteed by the continuity of functions describing classical physical linear, as well as stable non-linear, systems. Even without privacy amplification, Eve's probability for successful bit-guessing is found to converge towards 0.5 - i.e., the perfect security level - when ideal conditions are approached.

Abstract:
In this Letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple method to provide additional in-formation by conductivity measurements of soils. The AC electrical conductance of the soil is measured while it is exposed to a periodic vibration. The vibration-induced density fluctuation implies a corresponding conductivity fluctuation that can be seen as combination frequency components, the sum and the difference of the mean AC frequency and the double of vibration frequency, in the current response. The method is demonstrated by measurements on clayey and sandy soils.

Abstract:
Instantaneous noise-based logic can avoid time-averaging, which implies significant potential for low-power parallel operations in beyond-Moore-law-chips. However, the universe (uniform superposition) will be zero with high probability (non-zero with exponentially low probability) in the random-telegraph-wave representation thus the operations with the universe would require exponential time-complexity. To fix this deficiency, we modify the amplitudes of the signals of the L and H states and achieve an exponential speedup compared to the old situation. Another improvement concerns the identification of a single product (hyperspace) state. We introduce a time shifted noise-based logic, which is constructed by shifting each reference signal with a small time delay. This modification implies an exponential speedup of single hyperspace vector identification compared to the former case and it requires the same, O(N) complexity as in quantum computing.