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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3400 matches for " Lawrence Greenman "
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Neuroscience, unconscious processes: Clinical applications  [PDF]
Lawrence Greenman
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.31007
Abstract:

This article reviews selected neuroscience and psychoanalytic writings about respective concepts regarding unconscious processes. Two objectives are pursued. The first is the modification of an apparent dualistic view of the psychoanalytic, dynamic unconscious described by Freud and the implicit, automated unconscious described by neuroscientists into a unified unconscious process concept. Secondly, to examine the functional, structural theory of Freud and to connect it to neuroscience findings via neurodevelopment and the concomitant development of speech and language, an exclusive communicative capacity of the human species. The goal is to illustrate the application of the objectives into clinical settings.

Neurological Foundation of Unconscious and Higher Thinking Processes and the Dynamic Variability of Clinical Presentations  [PDF]
Lawrence Greenman
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2018.81006
Abstract: This article reviews selected neuroscientific and psychoanalytic writings with a focus on dynamic variability, unconscious processes and their presence in clinical venues. Two objects are pursued. First is the development of neuron circuity, leading up to higher thought processes and thinking. Second is to elucidate the neuron circuitry of unconscious processes. The goal is to describe the stated objectives and the theme of variability represented in clinical presentations and venues.
Second quantization approaches for stochastic age-structured birth-death processes
Chris D Greenman
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: We develop a fully stochastic theory for age-structured populations via Doi-Peliti quantum field theoretical methods. The operator formalism of Doi is first developed, whereby birth and death events are represented by creation and annihilation operators, and the complete probabilistic representation of the age-chart of a population is represented by states in a suitable Hilbert space. We then use this formalism to rederive several results in companion paper [6], including an equation describing the moments of the age-distribution, and the distribution of the population size. The functional representation of coherent states used by Peliti to analyze discrete Fock space is then adapted to incorporate the continuous age parameters, and a path integral formulation constructed. We apply these formalisms to a range of birth-death processes and show that although many of the results from Doi-Peliti formalism can be derived in a purely probabilistic way, the efficient formalism offered by second quantization methods provides a powerful technique that can manage algebraically complex birth death processes in a compact manner.
A kinetic theory for age-structured stochastic birth-death processes
Chris D. Greenman,Tom Chou
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but they are structurally unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Stochastic theories that treat semi-Markov age-dependent processes using e.g., the Bellman-Harris equation, do not resolve a population's age-structure and are unable to quantify population-size dependencies. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., mathematical models that include carrying capacity such as the Logistic equation) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an ageing population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a BBGKY-like hierarchy. However, explicit solutions are derived in two simple limits and compared with their corresponding mean-field results. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution.
A hierarchical kinetic theory of birth, death, and fission in age-structured interacting populations
Tom Chou,Chris D Greenman
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: We study mathematical models describing the evolution of stochastic age-structured populations. After reviewing existing approaches, we present a full kinetic framework for age-structured interacting populations undergoing birth, death and fission processes, in spatially dependent environments. We define the complete probability density for the population-size-age-chart and find results under specific conditions. Connections with more classical models are also explicitly derived. In particular, we show that factorial moments for non-interacting processes are described by a natural generalization of the McKendrick-von Foerster equation, which describes mean-field deterministic behaviour. Our approach utilizes mixed type, multi-dimensional probability distributions similar to those employed in the study of gas kinetics, with terms that satisfy BBGKY-like equation hierarchies.
Use of RNA Interference by In Utero Electroporation to Study Cortical Development: The Example of the Doublecortin Superfamily
Orly Reiner,Anna Gorelik,Raanan Greenman
Genes , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/genes3040759
Abstract: The way we study cortical development has undergone a revolution in the last few years following the ability to use shRNA in the developing brain of the rodent embryo. The first gene to be knocked-down in the developing brain was doublecortin (Dcx). Here we will review knockdown experiments in the developing brain and compare them with knockout experiments, thus highlighting the advantages and disadvantages using the different systems. Our review will focus on experiments relating to the doublecortin superfamily of proteins.
The Combinatorics of Tandem Duplication
L Penso-Dolfin,CD Greenman
Quantitative Biology , 2014,
Abstract: Tandem duplication is an evolutionary process whereby a segment of DNA is replicated and proximally inserted. The di?erent con?gurations that can arise from this process give rise to some interesting combinatorial questions. Firstly, we introduce an algebraic formalism to represent this process as a word producing automaton. The number of words arising from n tandem duplications can then be recursively derived. Secondly, each single word accounts for multiple evolutions. With the aid of a bi-coloured 2d- tree, a Hasse diagram corresponding to a partially ordered set is constructed, from which we can count the number of evolutions corresponding to a given word. Thirdly, we implement some subtree prune and graft operations on this structure to show that the total number of possible evolutions arising from n tandem duplications is $\prod_{k=1}^n(4^k - (2k + 1))$. The space of structures arising from tandem duplication thus grows at a super-exponential rate with leading order term $\mathcal{O}(4^{\frac{1}{2}n^2})$.
An Exact, Time-Independent Approach to Clone Size Distributions in Normal and Mutated Cells
Roshan A,Jones PH,Greenman CD
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Biological tools such as genetic lineage tracing, three dimensional confocal microscopy and next generation DNA sequencing are providing new ways to quantify the distribution of clones of normal and mutated cells. Population-wide clone size distributions in vivo are complicated by multiple cell types, and overlapping birth and death processes. This has led to the increased need for mathematically informed models to understand their biological significance. Standard approaches usually require knowledge of clonal age. We show that modelling on clone size independent of time is an alternative method that offers certain analytical advantages; it can help parameterize these models, and obtain distributions for counts of mutated or proliferating cells, for example. When applied to a general birth-death process common in epithelial progenitors this takes the form of a gamblers ruin problem, the solution of which relates to counting Motzkin lattice paths. Applying this approach to mutational processes, an alternative, exact, formulation of the classic Luria Delbruck problem emerges. This approach can be extended beyond neutral models of mutant clonal evolution, and also describe some distributions relating to sub-clones within a tumour. The approaches above are generally applicable to any Markovian branching process where the dynamics of different "coloured" daughter branches are of interest.
Computational Cancer Biology: An Evolutionary Perspective
Niko Beerenwinkel?,Chris D. Greenman,Jens Lagergren
PLOS Computational Biology , 2016, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004717
Abstract:
Economies of Scale in Local Government: General Government Spending  [PDF]
Lawrence Southwick
iBusiness (IB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2012.43034
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether larger or smaller municipalities are more efficient in their levels of overhead costs. The operative measure is per capita annual costs for these services. In addition, the issue of market structure as a factor in these costs is also to be studied. It is not for the purpose of considering costs for specific services but rather the general overhead items that are required of all local governments. The method of study will be to use the cities and towns of New York State over a number of years. This will ensure that the study group is relatively homogeneous over applicable state laws as well as giving a wide variation in the population levels studied. The per capita expenditures will be regressed against population and market power variables using several equation forms. The results will be tested for significance in scale effects and market power effects. Optimal population sizes will be calculated where possible. The outline of the paper is as follows: 1) Introduction, 2) Background issues, 3) The study design, 4) Data, 5) Results, and 6) Conclusions.
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