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Performers adopt strategies to use visual information if they know that it will be available whereas uncertainty about its availability leads performers to prepare for the worst-case scenario. Since the impact of prior knowledge has generally been examined as performance-based changes across a series of trials, this study investigates the impact of prior knowledge on learning. Participants practiced target-directed aiming movements either with cues about the random availability of vision, no cues regarding vision or in blocks of stable visual information availability. Participants who received prior knowledge were more efficient in preparing their acquisition movements when vision was available. In retention and transfer, all participants were able to take advantage of the visual information available in order to optimize performance outcome. Thus, adult performers appear able to change their strategic behavior quickly to accommodate new sensory and prior knowledge conditions.