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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4716 matches for " Laurent Guillaumot "
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Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) in southwestern Pacific countries, with a first report from the Kingdom of Tonga
Guillaumot Laurent,Ofanoa Reynold,Swillen Lucien,Singh Narendra
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-247
Abstract: Background Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus is currently one of the most notorious globally invasive mosquito species. Its medical importance is well documented, and its fast expansion throughout most continents is being monitored with concern. It is generally assumed that its expansion through the Western Pacific island countries has not progressed since its establishment in Fiji in 1989. However, the current status of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region is largely unknown. Findings According to data from the literature and our own observations, Ae. albopictus is currently present in the following countries of the southern Pacific region: Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and the Kingdom of Tonga, where it was first detected in July 2011. It is absent from New Caledonia and French Polynesia where routine entomological surveillance is carried out, and was not detected during entomological work in 2007, either on the Cook Islands or on the Wallis and Futuna Islands. The species was not reported from American Samoa in 2004, but it is mentioned as probably present in Vanuatu. This is the first report of Ae. albopictus in Tonga. Conclusions The introduction and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Tonga was expected due to the geographical proximity of this country to Fiji where the species is strongly established. The pathway of introduction is unknown. The expansion of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region poses an increasing threat to public health given the role this mosquito plays as primary vector of emerging infectious diseases such as Chikungunya fever.
Deltamethrin Resistance Mechanisms in Aedes aegypti Populations from Three French Overseas Territories Worldwide
Isabelle Dusfour?,Pilar Zorrilla?,Amandine Guidez?,Jean Issaly?,Romain Girod?,Laurent Guillaumot,Carlos Robello?,Clare Strode
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004226
Abstract: Background Aedes aegypti is a cosmopolite mosquito, vector of arboviruses. The worldwide studies of its insecticide resistance have demonstrated a strong loss of susceptibility to pyrethroids, the major class of insecticide used for vector control. French overseas territories such as French Guiana (South America), Guadeloupe islands (Lesser Antilles) as well as New Caledonia (Pacific Ocean), have encountered such resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings We initiated a research program on the pyrethroid resistance in French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Aedes aegypti populations were tested for their deltamethrin resistance level then screened by an improved microarray developed to specifically study metabolic resistance mechanisms. Cytochrome P450 genes were implicated in conferring resistance. CYP6BB2, CYP6M11, CYP6N12, CYP9J9, CYP9J10 and CCE3 genes were upregulated in the resistant populations and were common to other populations at a regional scale. The implication of these genes in resistance phenomenon is therefore strongly suggested. Other genes from detoxification pathways were also differentially regulated. Screening for target site mutations on the voltage-gated sodium channel gene demonstrated the presence of I1016 and C1534. Conclusion /significance This study highlighted the presence of a common set of differentially up-regulated detoxifying genes, mainly cytochrome P450 genes in all three populations. GUA and GUY populations shared a higher number of those genes compared to CAL. Two kdr mutations well known to be associated to pyrethroid resistance were also detected in those two populations but not in CAL. Different selective pressures and genetic backgrounds can explain such differences. These results are also compared with those obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed in the context of integrative research on vector competence.
Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the Main Arbovirus Vector in the Pacific
Elodie Calvez?,Laurent Guillaumot,Laurent Millet?,Jér?me Marie?,Hervé Bossin?,Vineshwaran Rama?,Akata Faamoe?,Sosiasi Kilama?,Magali Teurlai?,Fran?oise Mathieu-Daudé
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2016, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004374
Abstract: Background The Pacific region is an area unique in the world, composed of thousands of islands with differing climates and environments. The spreading and establishment of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in these islands might be linked to human migration. Ae. aegypti is the major vector of arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses) in the region. The intense circulation of these viruses in the Pacific during the last decade led to an increase of vector control measures by local health authorities. The aim of this study is to analyze the genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations in this region. Methodology/Principal Finding We studied the genetic variability and population genetics of 270 Ae. aegypti, sampled from 9 locations in New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia by analyzing nine microsatellites and two mitochondrial DNA regions (CO1 and ND4). Microsatellite markers revealed heterogeneity in the genetic structure between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries. The microsatellite markers indicate a statistically moderate differentiation (FST = 0.136; P < = 0.001) in relation to island isolation. A high degree of mixed ancestry can be observed in the most important towns (e.g. Noumea, Suva and Papeete) compared with the most isolated islands (e.g. Ouvea and Vaitahu). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of samples are related to Asian and American specimens. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest a link between human migrations in the Pacific region and the origin of Ae. aegypti populations. The genetic pattern observed might be linked to the island isolation and to the different environmental conditions or ecosystems.
Climate-Based Models for Understanding and Forecasting Dengue Epidemics
Elodie Descloux ,Morgan Mangeas,Christophe Eugène Menkes,Matthieu Lengaigne,Anne Leroy,Temaui Tehei,Laurent Guillaumot,Magali Teurlai,Ann-Claire Gourinat,Justus Benzler,Anne Pfannstiel,Jean-Paul Grangeon,Nicolas Degallier,Xavier De Lamballerie
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001470
Abstract: Background Dengue dynamics are driven by complex interactions between human-hosts, mosquito-vectors and viruses that are influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The objectives of this study were to analyze and model the relationships between climate, Aedes aegypti vectors and dengue outbreaks in Noumea (New Caledonia), and to provide an early warning system. Methodology/Principal Findings Epidemiological and meteorological data were analyzed from 1971 to 2010 in Noumea. Entomological surveillance indices were available from March 2000 to December 2009. During epidemic years, the distribution of dengue cases was highly seasonal. The epidemic peak (March–April) lagged the warmest temperature by 1–2 months and was in phase with maximum precipitations, relative humidity and entomological indices. Significant inter-annual correlations were observed between the risk of outbreak and summertime temperature, precipitations or relative humidity but not ENSO. Climate-based multivariate non-linear models were developed to estimate the yearly risk of dengue outbreak in Noumea. The best explicative meteorological variables were the number of days with maximal temperature exceeding 32°C during January–February–March and the number of days with maximal relative humidity exceeding 95% during January. The best predictive variables were the maximal temperature in December and maximal relative humidity during October–November–December of the previous year. For a probability of dengue outbreak above 65% in leave-one-out cross validation, the explicative model predicted 94% of the epidemic years and 79% of the non epidemic years, and the predictive model 79% and 65%, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The epidemic dynamics of dengue in Noumea were essentially driven by climate during the last forty years. Specific conditions based on maximal temperature and relative humidity thresholds were determinant in outbreaks occurrence. Their persistence was also crucial. An operational model that will enable health authorities to anticipate the outbreak risk was successfully developed. Similar models may be developed to improve dengue management in other countries.
Aedes hensilli as a Potential Vector of Chikungunya and Zika Viruses
Jeremy P. Ledermann,Laurent Guillaumot,Lawrence Yug,Steven C. Saweyog,Mary Tided,Paul Machieng,Moses Pretrick,Maria Marfel,Anne Griggs,Martin Bel,Mark R. Duffy,W. Thane Hancock,Tai Ho-Chen,Ann M. Powers
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003188
Abstract: An epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s) involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s). Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at select sites around the capital city. The predominant species found on the island was Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli. No virus isolates were obtained from the adult field material collected, nor did any of the immature mosquitoes that were allowed to emerge to adulthood contain viable virus or nucleic acid. Therefore, laboratory studies of the probable vector, Ae. hensilli, were undertaken to determine the likelihood of this species serving as a vector for Zika virus and other arboviruses. Infection rates of up to 86%, 62%, and 20% and dissemination rates of 23%, 80%, and 17% for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue-2 viruses respectively, were found supporting the possibility that this species served as a vector during the Zika outbreak and that it could play a role in transmitting other medically important arboviruses.
Marine Biology: A Sub-Sample of a Vast Topic  [PDF]
Laurent Seuront
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2013.32A001
Abstract:

Marine Biology: A Sub-Sample of a Vast Topic

Generalized Powers of Substitution with Pre-Function Operators  [PDF]
Laurent Poinsot
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.47A004
Abstract:

An operator on formal power series of the form S \"\" μS , where μ is an invertible power series, and σ is a series of the form t+\"\"(t2) is called a unipotent substitution with pre-function. Such operators, denoted by a pair (μ σ )  , form a group. The objective of this contribution is to show that it is possible to define a generalized powers for such operators, as for instance fractional powers \"\"σ for every\"\" .

The Mediating Role of the Sense of Relatedness and Task Cohesion in the Relation between Psychological Power Distance and Efficicency of a Working Team  [PDF]
Laurent Auzoult
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.410105
Abstract:

Understanding of the effectiveness of work-teams is a major issue in the business world, where they are expected to facilitate developing individual skills and increasing organizations’ efficiency. Eighty-three engineers working in teams have responded to a questionnaire devised to measure perceptual power distances, the sense of relatedness, cohesion measured by integration around the task, and teams’ effectiveness. Results reveal that “task cohesion” and sense of relatedness mediate the relationship between power distance and perceived effectiveness. These results are related with those observed in the context of the self-determination theory and presented in order to highlight their practical implications.

Health 3.0—The patient-clinician “arabic spring” in healthcare  [PDF]
Serge Gagnon, Laurent Chartier
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.42008
Abstract: A growing number of citizen-patients and clinicians use Communication and Self-Managed Health Technologies (CSMHT) in their relationship. Doing so, they shift from the current paradigm of dependency to a co-responsibility paradigm in healthcare. Facing the runaway utilization of health services, we need to think “outside the box” to unblock the system. A Health 3.0 development model of governance that position patients as primary members of the clinicians’ team is presented to map this institutional transformation. At the practical level, an MD 3.0 relational model and a Citizen-Patient 3.0 behavioral profile are presented.
Deploying Safety-Critical Applications on Complex Avionics Hardware Architectures  [PDF]
Robert Hilbrich, Laurent Dieudonné
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.65028
Abstract:

Aviation electronics (avionics) are sophisticated and distributed systems aboard an airplane. The complexity of these systems is constantly growing as an increasing amount of functionalities is realized in software. Thanks to the performance increase, a hardware unit must no longer be dedicated to a single system function. Multicore processors for example facilitate this trend as they are offering an increased system performance in a small power envelope. In avionics, several system functions could now be integrated on a single hardware unit, if all safety requirements are still satisfied. This approach allows for further optimizations of the system architecture and substantial reductions of the space, weight and power (SWaP) footprint, and thus increases the transportation capacity. However, the complexity found in current safety-critical systems requires an automated software deployment process in order to tap this potential for further SWaP reductions. This article used a realistic flight control system as an example to present a new model-based methodology to automate the software deployment process. This methodology is based on the correctness-by-construction principle and is implemented as part of a systems engineering toolset. Furthermore, metrics and optimization criteria are presented which further help in the automatic assessment and refinement of a generated deployment. A discussion regarding a tighter integration of this approach in the entire avionics systems engineering workflow concludes this article.

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