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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 34191 matches for " Laurence Huang "
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Continuous Maps on Digital Simple Closed Curves  [PDF]
Laurence Boxer
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/am.2010.15050
Abstract: We give digital analogues of classical theorems of topology for continuous functions defined on spheres, for digital simple closed curves. In particular, we show the following. ? A digital simple closed curve of more than 4 points is not contractible, i.e., its identity map is not nullhomotopic in . ? Let and be digital simple closed curves, each symmetric with respect to the origin, such that (where is the number of points in ). Let be a digitally continuous antipodal map. Then is not nullho- motopic in . ? Let be a digital simple closed curve that is symmetric with respect to the origin. Let be a digitally continuous map. Then there is a pair of antipodes such that .
COSR: A Reputation-Based Secure Route Protocol in MANET
Fei Wang,Furong Wang,Benxiong Huang,Laurence T. Yang
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/258935
Abstract: Now, the route protocols defined in the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) are constructed in a common assumption which all nodes contained in such networks are trustworthy and cooperative. Once malicious or selfish nodes exist, all route paths built by these protocols must be broken immediately. According to the secure problems within MANET, this paper proposes Cooperative On-demand Secure Route (COSR), a novel secure source route protocol, against malicious and selfish behaviors. COSR measures node reputation (NR) and route reputation (RR) by contribution, Capability of Forwarding (CoF) and recommendation upon Dynamic Source Route (DSR) and uses RR to balance load to avoid hotpoint. Furthermore, COSR defines path collection algorithm by NR to enhance efficiency of protocol. At last, we verify COSR through GloMoSim. Results show that COSR is secure and stable.
Modelling Visible Foliar Injury Effects on Canopy Photosynthesis and Potential Crop Yield Losses Resulting from Fluoride Exposure  [PDF]
David Doley, Laurence Rossato
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.39113
Abstract: Crop production models are highly developed to account for different nitrogen, light, temperature and water availability conditions and, in some species, disease or air pollutant effects. There is very limited knowledge on responses of many tropical crops, such as oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), to air pollutants although predictions of these effects are essential for industrial planning in several countries. In the absence of limitations due to water supply, the effects of leaf area loss due to necrosis and chlorosis are much more important to canopy photosynthesis than are changes in the physiological attributes that influence the efficiency of light use. Therefore, potential losses of crop production due to air pollutants such as fluoride can be inferred usefully from the extent of visible injury to foliage that may be associated with different levels of pollutant exposure.
The Cross-Sectional Risk Premium of Decomposed Market Volatility in UK Stock Market  [PDF]
Yan Yang, Laurence Copeland
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.27006

We decompose UK market volatility into short- and long-run components using EGARCH component model and examine the cross-sectional prices of the two components. Our empirical results suggest that these two components are significantly priced in the cross-section and the negative risk premia are consistent with the existing literature. The Fama-French three-factor model is improved by the inclusion of the two volatility components. However, our ICAPM model using market excess return and the decomposed volatility components as state variables compares inferiorly to the traditional three-factor model.

Guardians and Targets: A Routine Activity Approach to Terrorism in Southeast Asia  [PDF]
Camille Laurence Pauline Bigot
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.512011
Since 9/11, terrorism has been an important subject of study within the political and social fields, having often been examined critically. However, empirical frameworks have been lacking within the study of terrorism. This paper aims to counter reductionist views of terrorism and provide a holistic analysis under the arch of a criminological ontological framework. This study tests the relevance of routine activity theory to terrorism, taking the specific case study of terrorism within Southeast Asia. Working with Interpol, terror attacks, and counter-terrorism operations were quantified to mathematically model Routine Activity Theory where I aimed to find predictive terror patterns. Using a time-series analysis of terrorist attacks and counter-terrorism operations, Deterrence Theory, Randomness Theory in targeting and Contagion theory will be tested. A comparative framework will be established between religious attacks and politically related ones. My research aims to disprove any discursive assumptions of terrorism through a quantitative empirical focus. Furthermore, it aims to find patterns within terrorism to learn how to better combat it.
Respiratory Symptoms and Airway Obstruction in HIV-Infected Subjects in the HAART Era
M. Patricia George, Mouhamed Kannass, Laurence Huang, Frank C. Sciurba, Alison Morris
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006328
Abstract: Background Prevalence and risk factors for respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction in HIV-infected subjects in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are unknown. We evaluated respiratory symptoms and measured airway obstruction to identify the impact of HAART and other risk factors on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function. Methodology/Principal Findings Two hundred thirty-four HIV-infected adults without acute respiratory symptoms were recruited from an HIV clinic. All subjects were interviewed and performed spirometry. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were performed to determine predictors of respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) percent predicted, and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). Thirty-one percent of subjects reported at least one respiratory symptom. Smoking status (current or former versus never) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41–5.22, p = 0.003), higher log plasma HIV viral levels (OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.02–1.24, p = 0.02), and lower FEV1/FVC (OR = 1.06 for every 0.01 decrease in FEV1/FVC, 95%CI = 1.02–1.14, p = 0.001) were independent predictors of respiratory symptoms. Age (p = 0.04), pack-year smoking history (p<0.001), previous bacterial pneumonia (p = 0.007), and HAART use (p = 0.04) were independent predictors of decreased FEV1/FVC. Conclusions/Significance Respiratory symptoms remain common in HIV-infected subjects, especially in those with a smoking history. Subjects who were older, had a greater pack-year history of smoking, or previous bacterial pneumonia had lower FEV1/FVC ratios. Interestingly, use of HAART was independently associated with a decreased FEV1/FVC, possibly secondary to an immune response to subclinical infections, increased autoimmunity, or other factors associated with HAART use.
Pharmacokinetics of phenoxodiol, a novel isoflavone, following intravenous administration to patients with advanced cancer
Jan B Howes, Paul L de Souza, Leanne West, Li Huang, Laurence G Howes
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6904-11-1
Abstract: The pharmacokinetics of phenoxodiol was studied following a single intravenous (iv) bolus dose and during a continuous intravenous infusion. Three men with prostate cancer and 3 women with breast cancer received IV bolus phenoxodiol (5 mg/kg) and plasma was sampled for free and total phenoxodiol levels. On a separate occasion 5 of the same patients received a continuous intravenous infusion of phenoxodiol (2 mg/kg/h) and plasma was again sampled for free and total phenoxodiol levels. Phenoxodiol was measured using gradient HPLC with ultraviolet detection.Following bolus injection, free and total phenoxodiol appeared to follow first order pharmacokinetics. The elimination half-lives for free and total phenoxodiol were 0.67 ± 0.53 h and 3.19 ± 1.93 h, respectively, while the total plasma clearance rates were 2.48 ± 2.33 L/h and 0.15 ± 0.08 L/h, respectively. The respective apparent volumes of distribution were 1.55 ± 0.69 L/kg and 0.64 ± 0.51 L/kg. During continuous intravenous infusion, free phenoxodiol accumulated rapidly to reach a mean concentration at steady state of 0.79 ± 0.14 μg/ml after 0.87 ± 0.18 h. The apparent accumulation half-life of free phenoxodiol was 0.17 ± 0.04 h while the plasma clearance during continuous infusion was 1.29 ± 0.23 L/h.Phenoxodiol has a short plasma half-life, particularly in the free form, leading to a rapid attainment of steady state levels during continuous intravenous infusion.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12610000334000Phenoxodiol (PXD, NV-06) is an isoflavone derivative that has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo to possess anti-cancer activity [1-9]. Phenoxodiol is a synthetic analogue of genistein with unknown mechanism of action. It appears to have pleiotropic actions such as inhibition of tyrosine kinases, inhibition of topoisomerase II in a dose-dependent manner and inhibition of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis [2,10-12] but the predominant mode of action remains to be elucidated.
Nonadherence to Primary Prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia
James D. Heffelfinger, Andrew C. Voetsch, Glenn V. Nakamura, Patrick S. Sullivan, A. D. McNaghten, Laurence Huang
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005002
Abstract: Background Despite the effectiveness of prophylaxis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) continues to be the most common serious opportunistic infection among HIV-infected persons. We describe factors associated with nonadherence to primary PCP prophylaxis. Methodology/Principal Findings We used 2000–2004 data from the Supplement to HIV/AIDS Surveillance (SHAS) project, a cross-sectional interview project of HIV-infected persons ≥18 years conducted in 18 states. We limited the analysis to persons who denied having prior PCP, reported having a current prescription to prevent PCP, and answered the question “In the past 30 days, how often were you able to take the PCP medication(s) exactly the way your doctor told you to take them?” We used multivariable logistic regression to describe factors associated with nonadherence. Of 1,666 subjects prescribed PCP prophylaxis, 305 (18.3%) were nonadherent. Persons were more likely to be nonadherent if they reported using marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1–2.4), non-injection drugs other than marijuana (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0–2.1), or injection drugs (aOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3–4.1) in the past year; their mental health was “not good” for ≥1 day during the past month (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2–2.2); their most recent CD4 count was <200 cells/μL (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.2); or taking ART usually (aOR = 9.6, 95% CI = 6.7–13.7) or sometimes/rarely/never (aOR = 18.4, 95% CI = 11.1–30.4), compared with always, as prescribed. Conclusion/Significance Providers should inquire about and promote strategies to improve adherence to PCP prophylaxis, particularly among persons who use illicit drugs, have mental health issues, and who are not compliant with ART to reduce the occurrence of PCP.
Versatility of RNA-Binding Proteins in Cancer
Laurence Wurth
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/178525
Abstract: Posttranscriptional gene regulation is a rapid and efficient process to adjust the proteome of a cell to a changing environment. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are the master regulators of mRNA processing and translation and are often aberrantly expressed in cancer. In addition to well-studied transcription factors, RBPs are emerging as fundamental players in tumor development. RBPs and their mRNA targets form a complex network that plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis. This paper describes mechanisms by which RBPs influence the expression of well-known oncogenes, focusing on precise examples that illustrate the versatility of RBPs in posttranscriptional control of cancer development. RBPs appeared very early in evolution, and new RNA-binding domains and combinations of them were generated in more complex organisms. The identification of RBPs, their mRNA targets, and their mechanism of action have provided novel potential targets for cancer therapy.
Mouse Models of Human Autoimmune Diseases: Essential Tools That Require the Proper Controls
Laurence Morel
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020241
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