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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402602 matches for " Lauren M. Schwartz "
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Alcohol Consumption, One-Carbon Metabolites, Liver Cancer and Liver Disease Mortality
Lauren M. Schwartz, E. Christina Persson, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Barry I. Graubard, Neal D. Freedman, Satu M?nnist?, Demetrius Albanes, Katherine A. McGlynn
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078156
Abstract: Background Excess alcohol consumption adversely affects one-carbon metabolism and increases the risk of liver disease and liver cancer. Conversely, higher folate levels have been inversely associated with liver damage. The current study investigated the effects of alcohol and one-carbon metabolite intake on liver cancer incidence and liver disease mortality within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. Methods Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a population of 27,086 Finnish males with 194 incident liver cancers and 213 liver disease deaths. In a nested case-control subset (95 liver cancers, 103 controls), logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% CIs for serum one-carbon metabolites in relation to liver cancer risk. Results Daily alcohol consumption of more than 20.44 g was associated with an increased risk of both liver cancer incidence (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.52, 95%CI 1.06–2.18) and liver disease mortality (HR 6.68, 95%CI 4.16–10.71). These risks were unaffected by one-carbon metabolite intake. Similarly, in the case-control study, none of the serum one-carbon metabolites were associated with liver cancer. Conclusions The current study provided no convincing evidence for a protective association of one-carbon metabolite intake or serum level on the risk of liver cancer or liver disease mortality.
A Rare Case of Thymic Carcinoma  [PDF]
Farshad Anvari, Arnold M. Schwartz, Gregory Trachiotis
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.23030
Abstract: Thymic carcinomas are unusual tumors of the thymus gland. Basaloid carcinoma, an unusal epithelioid varient of a thymic carcinoma, is a rare histopathological subtype, and is not well charecterized in the literature. We present the anatomical and histogical features of a basoloid thymic carcinoma, and discuss current diagnosis and imaging strategies, as well as the operative and oncologic care of this type of thymmic carcinoma. Basaloid carcinomas of the thymus after complete surgical resection and adjuvant therapy genarally have a favorable long-term prognosis.
A review of malaria vaccine clinical projects based on the WHO rainbow table
Lauren Schwartz, Graham V Brown, Blaise Genton, Vasee S Moorthy
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-11
Abstract: As the malaria community considers the potential role of a first-generation malaria vaccine in malaria control efforts, it is an apposite time to carefully document terminated and ongoing malaria vaccine research projects so that lessons learned can be applied to increase the chances of success for second-generation malaria vaccines over the next 10 years.The most comprehensive resource of malaria vaccine projects is a spreadsheet compiled by WHO thanks to the input from funding agencies, sponsors and investigators worldwide. This spreadsheet, available from WHO's website, is known as "the rainbow table". By summarizing the published and some unpublished information available for each project on the rainbow table, the most comprehensive review of malaria vaccine projects to be published in the last several years is provided below.Few recent malaria vaccine review articles have attempted a comprehensive outline of all clinical trials that have occurred globally. The field has grown to such an extent that it is now very difficult to summarize all projects in a single review. The increase in funding over the last 10 years has allowed over 40 vaccine projects to reach the clinical trial stage. This manuscript is a comprehensive review of malaria vaccine clinical projects written in recent years, though even here it is possible that not every project has been included.WHO compiles the "rainbow table" spreadsheet, a comprehensive publicly available collation of global malaria vaccine project activity with input from funders, sponsors and investigators [1]. For this review, published papers related to each project from the rainbow table were obtained, and clinical trial registry information and conference abstracts were read, where papers are not yet published.As this review is based on projects which have reached the clinic, it is best seen as a documentation and discussion of projects which have reached that stage. This review does not present the status of current pre-c
Applications for gold-base brazing alloys
M. M. Schwartz
Gold Bulletin , 1975, DOI: 10.1007/BF03215078
Abstract: The advantageous properties of gold-based brazing alloys have found a number of uses in the construction of aero-engines and space craft, in nuclear engineering and in the electrical and electronic industries. After reviewing the characteristics of a number of commercially available brazing alloys this paper details some performance data that have governed the choice of alloy for specific applications.
A Metamodel for Describing the Outcomes of the Mana Cellular Automaton Combat Model Based on Lauren's Attrition Equation
M. K. Lauren
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: In 1999 the author suggested an equation to describe the rate and temporal distribution of battle casualties. This equation was proposed as a replacement for the Lanchester equation. Unlike Lanchester's equation, the author's equation is based on a measurement of the spatial distribution of forces involved in a battle, and incorporates this by use of the concept of the fractal dimension. In this report, the form of the expected Loss-Exchange-Ratio function based on this equation is determined. It is shown how this function can be used as a Metamodel to describe the outcome of some cellular automaton models. While this is not an exhaustive proof of the validity of the equation, the match for the case studied is convincing, pointing to the potential of the equation to be adopted more generally for combat models. This is particularly so in the context of earlier work studying historical battle data that also supports an equation of the form of the author's proposal.
Characterising the Difference between Complex Adaptive and Conventional Combat Models
M. K. Lauren
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: An attempt is made to quantitatively demonstrate the difference between a complex adaptive combat model and conventional combat models. The work shows that complex adaptive models may give rise to "turbulent" dynamics, which emerge once the battlefield is no longer "linear", i.e. once military formations no longer form ordered lines or columns. This is done using a cellular automaton model. This model exhibits a high degree of complexity, leading to a rich variety of behaviour. Conventional statistical methods fail to adequately capture this richness. Particular attention is paid to the properties of the attrition function. It is found that this function is discontinuous and possesses non-linear properties such as clustering of casualties, scaling of the statistical moments of the data and fat-tailed probability distributions. Fractal methods are found to be capable of quantifying these properties. A particularly significant result is the non-linearity of the pay-off of improved weapons performance. This contrasts with conventional models, where the attrition rate usually depends in a linear way on kill probability. Additionally, the model is found to possess at least two attractive states. A transition exists between the two cases in some situations. This transition appears to behave in an analogous way to the transition between laminar and turbulent states in fluid dynamics.
Describing Rates of Interaction between Multiple Autonomous Entities: An Example Using Combat Modelling
M. K. Lauren
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: This paper endeavors to show how a fractal-based approach can offer an alternative to differential equations for describing rates of interaction in complex systems. The specific example given is for combat analysis. This concerns a scenario of some similarity to the situation in Mogadishu in 1993, for which military analysts struggled to provide useful analytical tools. It is seen that the correlated dispositions of the entities in the model lend themselves to being described by fractal dimensions. This appears to lead to power laws for the rate of attrition. An equation is suggested to describe this phenomenon. This is particularly interesting because it is an example of a power-law dependent on one of the parameters of the model rather than a temporal or spatial scale.
Clinical utility of vilazodone for the treatment of adults with major depressive disorder and theoretical implications for future clinical use
Singh M, Schwartz TL
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S20683
Abstract: ical utility of vilazodone for the treatment of adults with major depressive disorder and theoretical implications for future clinical use Review (3944) Total Article Views Authors: Singh M, Schwartz TL Published Date March 2012 Volume 2012:8 Pages 123 - 130 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S20683 Received: 15 November 2011 Accepted: 13 February 2012 Published: 23 March 2012 Mandeep Singh, Thomas L Schwartz SUNY Upstate Medical University, Psychiatry Department, Syracuse, NY, USA Background: Vilazodone is the latest approved antidepressant available in the United States. Its dual mechanism of action combines the inhibition of serotonin transporters while simultaneously partially agonizing serotonin-1a (5-HT1A) receptors. This combined activity results in serotonin facilitation across the brain's serotonergic pathways, which has been termed by the authors as that of a serotonin partial agonist and reuptake inhibitor, or SPARI. Objective: The authors to review laboratory, animal model data, and human trial data to synthesize a working theory regarding the mechanism of antidepressant action of this agent and regarding its potential for additional indications. Methods: A MEDLINE and Internet search was conducted and the resultant evidence reviewed. Results: Vilazodone has randomized, controlled empirical data which has garnered it an approval for treating major depressive disorder. It combines two well-known pharmacodynamic mechanisms of serotonergic action into a novel agent. Although no head-to-head studies against other antidepressants are published, the efficacy data for vilazodone appears comparable to other known antidepressants, with associated gastrointestinal side effects similar to serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, but potentially with a lower incidence of sexual side effects and weight gain. Discussion: As a new option for the treatment of major depressive disorder, vilazodone, due to its unique SPARI mechanism of action, may hold promise for patients who cannot tolerate or have not responded to previous antidepressant monotherapies. Additionally, its use may extend to the treatment of other mental health conditions similar to those treated by serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors.
Clinical utility of vilazodone for the treatment of adults with major depressive disorder and theoretical implications for future clinical use
Singh M,Schwartz TL
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2012,
Abstract: Mandeep Singh, Thomas L SchwartzSUNY Upstate Medical University, Psychiatry Department, Syracuse, NY, USABackground: Vilazodone is the latest approved antidepressant available in the United States. Its dual mechanism of action combines the inhibition of serotonin transporters while simultaneously partially agonizing serotonin-1a (5-HT1A) receptors. This combined activity results in serotonin facilitation across the brain's serotonergic pathways, which has been termed by the authors as that of a serotonin partial agonist and reuptake inhibitor, or SPARI.Objective: The authors to review laboratory, animal model data, and human trial data to synthesize a working theory regarding the mechanism of antidepressant action of this agent and regarding its potential for additional indications.Methods: A MEDLINE and Internet search was conducted and the resultant evidence reviewed.Results: Vilazodone has randomized, controlled empirical data which has garnered it an approval for treating major depressive disorder. It combines two well-known pharmacodynamic mechanisms of serotonergic action into a novel agent. Although no head-to-head studies against other antidepressants are published, the efficacy data for vilazodone appears comparable to other known antidepressants, with associated gastrointestinal side effects similar to serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, but potentially with a lower incidence of sexual side effects and weight gain.Discussion: As a new option for the treatment of major depressive disorder, vilazodone, due to its unique SPARI mechanism of action, may hold promise for patients who cannot tolerate or have not responded to previous antidepressant monotherapies. Additionally, its use may extend to the treatment of other mental health conditions similar to those treated by serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors.Keywords: major depressive disorder, vilazodone, antidepressants
Sustainability and Forest Certification as a Framework for a Capstone Forest Resource Management Plans Course  [PDF]
Christine M. Watts, Lauren S. Pile, Thomas J. Straka
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.23019
Abstract: Forest sustainability is the foundation of forestry and modern forest management. Originally the central concept was sustained-yield and maximum timber production and then multiple-use and other non-timber values gained importance. After the Rio Conference and development of the Montréal Process in the early 1990’s, forest sustainability rapidly gained importance and various forest certification schemes developed to certify forest products that were grown using sustainable forest management. Forest sustainability and forest certification have become critical topics in forestry curricula. The American Tree Farm System is one of the important North American forest certification organizations. Modern forestry curricula often include a capstone course where forest management plans are developed. We describe a capstone course at Clemson University under development that uses the management standards and management plan template of the American Tree Farm System as a framework for students to develop actual forest management plans for local forest owners. The material is integrated into a series of four courses leading up to the capstone course. The course offered a hands-on approach for students to create management plans using actual certification standards and the system’s management plan template. In addition, students received specialized training to qualify as auditors for the certification system. This is an example of forest sustainability being integrated into the forestry curriculum.
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