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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11746 matches for " Laura Petrosini "
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Individual differences in response to positive and negative stimuli: endocannabinoid-based insight on approach and avoidance behaviors
Daniela Laricchiuta,Laura Petrosini
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2014.00238
Abstract: Approach and avoidance behaviors - the primary responses to the environmental stimuli of danger, novelty and reward - are associated with the brain structures that mediate cognitive functionality, reward sensitivity and emotional expression. Individual differences in approach and avoidance behaviors are modulated by the functioning of amygdaloid-hypothalamic-striatal and striatal-cerebellar networks implicated in action and reaction to salient stimuli. The nodes of these networks are strongly interconnected and by acting on them the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems increase the intensity of appetitive or defensive motivation. This review analyzes the approach and avoidance behaviors in humans and rodents, addresses neurobiological and neurochemical aspects of these behaviors, and proposes a possible synaptic plasticity mechanism, related to endocannabinoid-dependent long-term potentiation and depression that allows responding to salient positive and negative stimuli.
Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) on Left Cerebellar Hemisphere Affects Mental Rotation Tasks during Music Listening
Silvia Picazio, Massimiliano Oliveri, Giacomo Koch, Carlo Caltagirone, Laura Petrosini
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064640
Abstract: Converging evidence suggests an association between spatial and music domains. A cerebellar role in music-related information processing as well as in spatial-temporal tasks has been documented. Here, we investigated the cerebellar role in the association between spatial and musical domains, by testing performances in embodied (EMR) or abstract (AMR) mental rotation tasks of subjects listening Mozart Sonata K.448, which is reported to improve spatial-temporal reasoning, in the presence or in the absence of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the left cerebellar hemisphere. In the absence of cerebellar cTBS, music listening did not influence either MR task, thus not revealing a “Mozart Effect”. Cerebellar cTBS applied before musical listening made subjects faster (P = 0.005) and less accurate (P = 0.005) in performing the EMR but not the AMR task. Thus, cerebellar inhibition by TBS unmasked the effect of musical listening on motor imagery. These data support a coupling between music listening and sensory-motor integration in cerebellar networks for embodied representations.
CB1 Receptor Autoradiographic Characterization of the Individual Differences in Approach and Avoidance Motivation
Daniela Laricchiuta, Maria Luisa Rojo, Antonio Rodriguez-Gaztelumendi, Fabio Ferlazzo, Laura Petrosini, Christopher J. Fowler
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042111
Abstract: Typically, approach behaviour is displayed in the context of moving towards a desired goal, while avoidance behaviour is displayed in the context of moving away from threatening or novel stimuli. In the current research, we detected three sub-populations of C57BL/6J mice that spontaneously responded with avoiding, balancing or approaching behaviours in the presence of the same conflicting stimuli. While the balancing animals reacted with balanced responses between approach and avoidance, the avoiding or approaching animals exhibited inhibitory or advance responses towards one of the conflicting inputs, respectively. Individual differences in approach and avoidance motivation might be modulated by the normal variance in the level of functioning of different systems, such as endocannabinoid system (ECS). The present research was aimed at analysing the ECS involvement on approach and avoidance behavioural processes. To this aim, in the three selected sub-populations of mice that exhibited avoiding or balancing or approaching responses in an approach/avoidance Y-maze we analysed density and functionality of CB1 receptors as well as enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase activity in different brain regions, including the networks functionally responsible for emotional and motivational control. The main finding of the present study demonstrates that in both approaching and avoiding animals higher CB1 receptor density in the amygdaloidal centro-medial nuclei and in the hypothalamic ventro-medial nucleus was found when compared with the CB1 receptor density exhibited by the balancing animals. The characterization of the individual differences to respond in a motivationally based manner is relevant to clarify how the individual differences in ECS activity are associated with differences in motivational and affective functioning.
Differences in Spontaneously Avoiding or Approaching Mice Reflect Differences in CB1-Mediated Signaling of Dorsal Striatal Transmission
Daniela Laricchiuta, Silvia Rossi, Alessandra Musella, Valentina De Chiara, Debora Cutuli, Diego Centonze, Laura Petrosini
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033260
Abstract: Approach or avoidance behaviors are accompanied by perceptual vigilance for, affective reactivity to and behavioral predisposition towards rewarding or punitive stimuli, respectively. We detected three subpopulations of C57BL/6J mice that responded with avoiding, balancing or approaching behaviors not induced by any experimental manipulation but spontaneously displayed in an approach/avoidance conflict task. Although the detailed neuronal mechanisms underlying the balancing between approach and avoidance are not fully clarified, there is growing evidence that endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a critical role in the control of these balancing actions. The sensitivity of dorsal striatal synapses to the activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors was investigated in the subpopulations of spontaneously avoiding, balancing or approaching mice. Avoiding animals displayed decreased control of CB1 receptors on GABAergic striatal transmission and in parallel increase of behavioral inhibition. Conversely, approaching animals exhibited increased control of CB1 receptors and in parallel increase of explorative behavior. Balancing animals reacted with balanced responses between approach and avoidance patterns. Treating avoiding animals with URB597 (fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor) or approaching animals with AM251 (CB1 receptor inverse agonist) reverted their respective behavioral and electrophysiological patterns. Therefore, enhanced or reduced CB1-mediated control on dorsal striatal transmission represents the synaptic hallmark of the approach or avoidance behavior, respectively. Thus, the opposite spontaneous responses to conflicting stimuli are modulated by a different involvement of endocannabinoid signaling of dorsal striatal neurons in the range of temperamental traits related to individual differences.
Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences offspring developmental trajectories: motor behavior and neurotrophin expression
Paola Caporali,Debora Cutuli,Francesca Gelfo,Daniela Laricchiuta,Francesca Foti,Paola De Bartolo,Laura Mancini,Francesco Angelucci,Laura Petrosini
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00195
Abstract: Environmental enrichment is usually applied immediately after weaning or in adulthood, with strong effects on CNS anatomy and behavior. To examine the hypothesis that a pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females could affect the motor development of their offspring, female rats were reared in an enriched environment from weaning to sexual maturity, while other female rats used as controls were reared under standard conditions. Following mating with standard-reared males, all females were housed individually. To evaluate the eventual transgenerational influence of positive pre-reproductive maternal experiences, postural and motor development of male pups was analyzed from birth to weaning. Moreover, expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor in different brain regions was evaluated at birth and weaning. Pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females affected the offspring motor development, as indicated by the earlier acquisition of complex motor abilities displayed by the pups of enriched females. The earlier acquisition of motor abilities was associated with enhanced neurotrophin levels in striatum and cerebellum. In conclusion, maternal positive experiences were transgenerationally transmitted, and influenced offspring phenotype at both behavioral and biochemical levels.
Motor and Linguistic Linking of Space and Time in the Cerebellum
Massimiliano Oliveri,Sonia Bonnì,Patrizia Turriziani,Giacomo Koch,Emanuele Lo Gerfo,Sara Torriero,Carmelo Mario Vicario,Laura Petrosini,Carlo Caltagirone
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007933
Abstract: Recent literature documented the presence of spatial-temporal interactions in the human brain. The aim of the present study was to verify whether representation of past and future is also mapped onto spatial representations and whether the cerebellum may be a neural substrate for linking space and time in the linguistic domain. We asked whether processing of the tense of a verb is influenced by the space where response takes place and by the semantics of the verb.
A single intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin in rats induces long-lasting modifications in behavior and brain protein levels of TNF-α and IL-18
Paola Bossù, Debora Cutuli, Ilaria Palladino, Paola Caporali, Francesco Angelucci, Daniela Laricchiuta, Francesca Gelfo, Paola De Bartolo, Carlo Caltagirone, Laura Petrosini
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-101
Abstract: Wistar rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5?mg/kg) or vehicle. After 7?days and 10?months, the animal behavior was evaluated by testing specific cognitive functions, as mnesic, discriminative, and attentional functions, as well as anxiety levels. Contextually, TNF-α and IL-18 protein levels were measured by ELISA in defined brain regions (that is, frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and hypothalamus).Behavioral testing demonstrated a specific and persistent cognitive impairment characterized by marked deficits in reacting to environment modifications, possibly linked to reduced motivational or attentional deficits. Concomitantly, LPS induced a TNF-α increase in the hippocampus and frontal cortex (from 7?days onward) and cerebellum (only at 10?months). Interestingly, LPS treatment enhanced IL-18 expression in these same areas only at 10?months after injection.Overall, these results indicate that the chronic neuroinflammatory network elicited by systemic inflammation involves a persistent participation of TNF-α accompanied by a differently regulated contribution of IL-18. This leads to speculation that, though with still unclear mechanisms, both cytokines might take part in long-lasting modifications of brain functions, including behavioral alteration.
Combining Public Key Encryption with Schnorr Digital Signature  [PDF]
Laura Savu
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.52016
Abstract: This article presents a new signcryption scheme which is based on the Schnorr digital signature algorithm. The new scheme represents my personal contribution to signcryption area. I have implemented the algorithm in a program and here are provided the steps of the algorithm, the results and some examples. The paper also contains the presentation of the original Signcryption scheme, based on ElGamal digital signature and discusses the practical applications of Signcryption in real life. The purpose of the study is to combine the public key encryption with Schnorr digital signature in order to obtain less computational and communicational costs. Signcryption primitive is a better approach then Encrypt-then-Sign or Sign-then-Encrypt methods regarding the costs. All these algorithms offer the possibility to transmit a message over an insecure channel providing both authenticity and confidentiality.
Practical Stabilization for Uncertain Pseudo-Linear and Pseudo-Quadratic MIMO Systems  [PDF]
Laura Celentano
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2013.21004
Abstract:

In this paper the problem of practical stabilization for a significant class of MIMO uncertain pseudo-linear and pseudo-quadratic systems, with additional bounded nonlinearities and/or bounded disturbances, is considered. By using the concept of majorant system, via Lyapunov approach, new fundamental theorems, from which derive explicit formulas to design state feedback control laws, with a possible imperfect compensation of nonlinearities and disturbances, are stated. These results guarantee a specified convergence velocity of the linearized system of the majorant system and a desired steady-state output for generic uncertainties and/or generic bounded nonlinearities and/or bounded disturbances.

Book Announcement of L. Celentano, Robust Tracking Controllers Design with Generic References for Continuous and Discrete Uncertain Linear SISO Systems, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2012  [PDF]
Laura Celentano
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2014,
Abstract:

In this book new results on controller design techniques for the tracking of generic reference inputs are presented. They allow the design of a controller for an uncertain process, either continuous or discrete-time, without zeros, and with measurable state. The controller guarantees that the control system is Type 1 and has the desired constant gain and poles or that the control system tracks, with a specified maximum error and with a specified maximum time constant, a generic reference with bounded derivative (variation in the discrete-time case), also in the presence of a generic disturbance with bounded derivative (variation). In addition, it is considered the case in which the reference is known a priori.

The utility and the efficiency of the proposed methods are illustrated with attractive and significant examples of motion control and temperature control.

This book is useful for the design of control systems, especially for manufacturing systems, that are versatile, fast, precise and robust.

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