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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17179 matches for " Laura Miller "
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University Biology Patrons in the Library Literature 2000-2010: A Content Analysis & Literature Review
Laura Newton Miller
Partnership : the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research , 2011,
Abstract: The researcher conducted a content analysis and literature review of papers written from 2000-2010 that focused on university biology students, faculty, and their papers. Scholarly articles were divided into the library research domains. The largest number of papers was from the Education domain, followed closely by Collections. Only two papers were categorized as Reference/Enquiries, and no papers were found in Management and Professional Issues. This research will enable science librarians to better understand what evidence was already written about biology subjects in a university setting. Gaps in the literature can help inform other librarians who are interested in pursuing more research with biology subjects.
Retention Initiatives are Employed in Academic Libraries, Although not Necessarily for this Purpose. A Review of: Strothmann, M., & Ohler, L. A. (2011). Retaining academic librarians: By chance or by design? Library Management, 32(3), 191-208. doi: 10.1108/01435121111112907
Laura Newton Miller
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2011,
Abstract: Objective – To study methods that support retention of academic librarians. Design – Exploratory research using an online survey; non-random sample. Setting – Academic libraries, nearly all located within the U.S. (97.2%). Subjects – A total of 895 professional academic librarians. Methods – The researchers sent an online survey link to professional electronic mail lists and directly to heads of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries. The 23-item survey was available from February 19, 2007, through March 9, 2007, and contained questions about the professional experience of respondents, their libraries, and their universities. Subjects were asked to identify retention activities that were currently offered at their workplaces (both library-specific and university-wide) and to rate their satisfaction for each available initiative. The list contained fifteen initiatives based on the researchers’ literature review. Main Results – Almost half (46.3%) of respondents were 50 or older and 7.5% under 30 years old, leaving 46.2% between the ages of 30-50 years old (although this percentage is not explicitly stated in the paper except in a table). Nearly half of the subjects were in the first ten years of their careers. 80.2% had held between one and four professional positions in their careers, and even when length of professional experience was factored out, age had no effect on the number of positions held. Most job turnover within the past three years (3 or fewer open positions) was in public service, while other areas of the library (i.e., technical services, systems, and administration) reported zero open positions. Only 11.3% of respondents noted that their libraries have deliberate, formal retention programs in place. Despite this, there are several library- and university-based initiatives that can be considered to help with retention. The most reported available library-based retention initiative was the provision of funding to attend conferences (86.8%). Librarians also frequently reported flexible schedules, support and funding for professional development and access to leadership programs. University-based retention programs included continuing education funding, new employee orientations, faculty status, and the chance to teach credit-bearing courses. Only 22.2% of subjects reported formal mentoring programs as a retention strategy. Librarians were very or somewhat satisfied with schedule flexibility (79.6%). They were generally satisfied with other initiatives reported. In response to 22 five-point Likert scale descriptions of posi
Quality of Online Chat Reference Answers Differ between Local and Consortium Library Staff: Providing Consortium Staff with More Local Information Can Mitigate these Differences. A Review of: Meert, D.L., & Given, L.M. (2009). Measuring quality in chat reference consortia: A comparative analysis of responses to users’ queries.” College & Research Libraries, 70(1), 71‐84.
Laura Newton Miller
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2010,
Abstract: Objective – To evaluate the quality of answers from a 24/7 online chat reference service by comparing the responses given by local and consortia library staff using in‐house reference standards, and by assessing whether or not the questions were answered in real time. Design – Comparative analysis of online chat reference transcripts. Setting – Large academic library in Alberta, Canada. Subjects – A total of online chat reference transcripts from the first year of consortium service were analyzed for this study. Of these, 252 were answered by local library staff and 226 from consortia (non‐local) library staff. Methods – A stratified random sample of 1,402 transcripts were collected from the first year of consortium service (beginning of October to end of April). This method was then applied monthly, resulting in a sample size of 478 transcripts. In the first part of the study, responses were coded within the transcripts with a “yes” or “no” label to determine if they met the standards set by the local university library’s reference management. Reference transaction standards included questions regarding whether or not correct information or instructions were given and if not, whether the user was referred to an authoritative source for the correct information. The second part of the study coded transcripts with a “yes” or “no” designation as to whether the user received an answer from the staff member in “real time” and if not, was further analyzed to determine why the user did not receive a real‐time response. Each transcript was coded as reflecting one of four “question categories” that included library user information, request for instruction, request for academic information, and miscellaneous/non‐library questions. Main Results – When all question types were integrated, analysis revealed that local library staff met reference transaction standards 94% of the time. Consortia staff met these same standards 82% of the time. The groups showed the most significant differences when separated into the question categories. Local library staff met the standards for “Library User Information” questions 97% of the time, while consortia staff met the standards only 76% of the time. “Request for Instruction” questions were answered with 97% success by local library staff and with 84% success by consortia. Local library staff met the “Request for Academic Information” standards 90% of the time while consortia staff met these standards 87% of the time. For “Miscellaneous Non‐Library Information” questions, 93% of local and 83% of consortia staff met the referen
Physicists and Astronomers Use Google as a Starting Point for Specific Queries, but Do Not Intentionally Use It to Search for Articles. A Review of: Jamali, H. R., & Asadi, S. (2010). Google and the scholar: The role of Google in scientists’ information seeking behaviour. Online Information Review, 34(2), 282-294.
Laura Newton Miller
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2011,
Abstract: Objective – To determine how Google’s general search engine impacts the information-seeking behaviour of physicists and astronomers. Design – Using purposive stratified non-random sampling, a mixed-methods study was conducted which included one-on-one interviews, information-event cards, and an online questionnaire survey. Setting – Department of Physics and Astronomy at University College London. Subjects – The researchers interviewed 26 PhD students and 30 faculty members (23% of the department’s 242 faculty and students), and 24 of those participants completed information-event cards. A total of 114 respondents (47.1% of the department members) participated in the online survey. Methods – The researchers conducted 56 interviews which lasted an average of 44 minutes each. These were digitally recorded, fully transcribed, and coded. The researchers asked questions related to information-seeking behaviour and scholarly communication. Four information-event cards were given to volunteer interviewees to gather critical incident information on their first four information-seeking actions after the interview. These were to be completed preferably within the first week of receiving the cards, with 82 cards completed by 24 participants. Once initial analysis of the interviews was completed, the researchers sent an online survey to the members of the same department. Main Results – This particular paper examined only the results related to the scholars’ information-seeking behaviour in terms of search engines and web searching. Details of further results are examined in Jamali (2008) and Jamali and Nicholas (2008). The authors reported that 18% of the respondents used Google on a daily basis to identify articles. They also found that 11% searched subject databases, and 9% searched e-journal websites on a daily basis. When responses on daily searching were combined with those from participants who searched two to three times per week, the most popular method for finding research was by tracking references at the end of an article (61%). This was followed by Google (58%) and ToC email alerts (35%). Responses showed that 46% never used Google Scholar to discover research articles. When asked if they intentionally searched Google to find articles, all except two participants answered that they do not, instead using specific databases to find research. The researchers noted that finding articles in Google was not the original intention of participants’ searches, but more of a by-product of Google searching. In the information-event card study, two categories emerged
Canadian Public Libraries Are Aware of Their Role as Information Literacy Training Providers, but Face Several Challenges. A Review of: Lai, H.-J. (2011). Information literacy training in public libraries: A case from Canada. Educational Technology & Society, 14(2), 81-88.
Laura Newton Miller
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2012,
Abstract: Objective– To explore the current state of information literacy (IL) training in Canadian public libraries, and to identify strategies used for improving IL training skills for staff and patrons. Design – Mixed-methods approach, including document analysis, observations, and focus group interviews. Setting – Two libraries of a large public library system in Canada: the central library and one branch library. Subjects – Six staff members (manager, administrator, training coordinator, instructor, and computer technician) who have been involved in designing and teaching information literacy courses for library patrons and staff. Methods – The researcher analyzed internal and external library documents related to information literacy, including, but not limited to, reports, posters, lesson plans, newsletters, and training scripts. He also observed interactions and behaviours of patrons during IL training sessions. Finally, he conducted a focus group with people involved in IL training, asking questions about facilities and resources, programs, patron reaction, librarian knowledge of IL theory, and impediments and benefits of IL training programs in public libraries. Main Results – Staff were aware of the importance of IL training in the library. Attracting more library patrons (including building partnerships with other organizations), improving staff IL and training skills, employing effective strategies for running training programs, and dealing with financial issues were all concerns about running IL training that were highlighted. Conclusion – Canadian public libraries are well aware of their role as IL training providers, but they still face several challenges in order to improve their effectiveness.
Labour Costs for Inventory Control Less Expensive than Repurchasing. A Review of: Sung, J. S., Whisler, J. A., & Sung, N. (2009). A cost-benefit analysis of a collections inventory project: A statistical analysis of inventory data from a medium-sized academic library. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 35(4), 314-323.
Laura Newton Miller
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2010,
Abstract: Objective – To describe an inventory system that was created within the library and to show the cost-effectiveness of using the inventory system compared to the price of reacquiring mis-shelved books. Design – Bibliometric study and cost-benefit analysis. Setting – Medium-sized academic library in a rural community of the United States. Subjects – Approximately 300,000 books from LC classifications D through H, N, P and Q, representing two thirds of the library’s entire monograph collection. Methods – The library created its own electronic inventory and shelf-reading program, using a laptop computer equipped with a hand-held scanner, to scan barcodes in the stacks. Library staff used the Microsoft Access database to update two files containing a shelf-list and an active-status list while the books were scanned. The program alerted the worker if books found had an active status (i.e., Missing, Renewed, Overdue, Charged), were not in the correct order, or were not in the system. Each transaction created a log which contained a time stamp (to the second), the call number and the barcode number. It also took note of scanning errors, books that were out of order, and books that were not on a shelf-list. After a complete section was examined, a list was produced to reveal the distance of mis-shelved books from their correct location and the amount of time between each scan. The researchers used statistical analysis (using SPSS 15.0) to measure scan speed for each scan, mis-shelving rate and error distance of each mis-shelved book. In order to analyze the cost of labour to replace a book versus the cost of inventorying, the researchers estimated the salary costs of staff members involved in selection, acquisition and cataloguing. The library spent $440,000 USD in labour costs to purchase 15,000 monographs in one fiscal year (approximately $30.00 USD in labour costs per book). They multiplied this by 5300 books that were found to be “badly” mis-shelved (found beyond 25 books away from the proper position). Labour fees were used to determine costs of inventorying by calculating average scanning speed and cost per hour to pay someone to scan the entire half-million monograph collection. Main Results – It took approximately 707 hours to scan 305,000 monographs. The average (mode) calculation for scans was 5 seconds for 80% of the barcodes, with an average (mean) of 8.35 seconds between scans. The longest average (mean) time for scanning barcodes was in the N section, followed by G, H, P, Q, D, E and F. A total of 291 books were found on the shelves with an “active”
University Engineering Faculty Depend on Scholarly Journals, Web Resources, and Face-to-Face Consultations to Help Them with Research. A Review of: Engel, D., Robbins, S., & Kulp, C. (2011). The information-seeking habits of engineering faculty. College & Research Libraries, 72(6), 548-567.
Laura Newton Miller
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2012,
Abstract: Objective – To study the information-seekingbehaviour of engineering faculty. Design – Online survey; Purposive sample. Setting – Engineering departments of 20 largepublic universities in various regions of theUnited States. Subjects – 903 engineering faculty members(including 35% professors; 24% associateprofessors, 23% assistant professors, and 17%ranked as adjunct faculty, instructors,lecturers, professors emeriti and “other”). Methods – 4905 researchers were sent an emailinvitation to complete a 12-item survey withopen and closed questions. Email addresseswere gathered from university websites. Main Results – 96% of those surveyed findaccess to online scholarly journals (current andbackfiles) as very important or important. 71%believe access to the physical book collection isvery important or important. 56% feel thataccess to electronic book collections is veryimportant or important. (Further analysisrevealed a difference between newer and olderfaculty- 62% of newer faculty and 52% offaculty in field for 16 or more years thinkelectronic book collections are important).Print subscriptions to journals are important toonly 37% of respondents, and providing spaceto conduct research is important to only 36% ofthose surveyed. Besides attending conferencesand scanning journals, face-to-face discussion with students and colleagues was a key resource for faculty for keeping current in the engineering field. 81% seek information at least weekly to prepare for lectures, about 74% at least monthly to conduct research or write publications, and 77% at least monthly to remain current in their field. 73% visited the physical library fewer than five times in the past year, but researchers were surprised that almost half (47%) rated assistance from library staff as important or very important. 70% see interlibrary loan services as important or very important. Conclusion – Engineering faculty rely on scholarly journals, Internet, and other electronic resources for their research. They depend on face-to-face consultations with students and colleagues. The physical space of the library is less important.
Broad Leaves in Strong Flow
Laura Miller,Arvind Santhanakrishnan
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Flexible broad leaves are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up into a cone shape and reduce both drag and vortex induced oscillations. In this fluid dynamics video, the flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is significant to both the reduction of vortex-induced vibrations and the forces experienced by the leaf.
Reynolds number limits for jet propulsion: A numerical study of simplified jellyfish
Gregory Herschlag,Laura A. Miller
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: The Scallop Theorem states that reciprocal methods of locomotion, such as jet propulsion or paddling, will not work in Stokes flow (Reynolds number = 0). In nature the effective limit of jet propulsion is still in the range where inertial forces are significant. It appears that almost all animals that use jet propulsion swim at Reynolds numbers (Re) of about 5 or more. Juvenile squid and octopods hatch from the egg already swimming in this inertial regime. The limitations of jet propulsion at intermediate Re is explored here using the immersed boundary method to solve the two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish. The contraction and expansion kinematics are prescribed, but the forward and backward swimming motions of the idealized jellyfish are emergent properties determined by the resulting fluid dynamics. Simulations are performed for both an oblate bell shape using a paddling mode of swimming and a prolate bell shape using jet propulsion. Average forward velocities and work put into the system are calculated for Reynolds numbers between 1 and 320. The results show that forward velocities rapidly decay with decreasing Re for all bell shapes when Re < 10. Similarly, the work required to generate the pulsing motion increases significantly for Re < 10. When compared actual organisms, the swimming velocities and vortex separation patterns for the model prolate agree with those observed in Nemopsis bachei. The forward swimming velocities of the model oblate jellyfish after two pulse cycles are comparable to those reported for Aurelia aurita, but discrepancies are observed in the vortex dynamics between when the 2D model oblate jellyfish and the organism.
Combinatorics of rank jumps in simplicial hypergeometric systems
Laura Felicia Matusevich,Ezra Miller
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: Let A be an integer (d x n) matrix, and assume that the convex hull conv(A) of its columns is a simplex of dimension d-1. Write \NA for the semigroup generated by the columns of A. It was proved by M. Saito [math.AG/0012257] that the semigroup ring \CC[\NA] over the complex numbers \CC is Cohen-Macaulay if and only if the rank of the GKZ hypergeometric system H_A(beta) equals the normalized volume of conv(A) for all complex parameters beta in \CC^d. Our refinement here shows, in this simplicial case, that H_A(beta) has rank strictly larger than the volume of conv(A) if and only if beta lies in the Zariski closure in \CC^d of all \ZZ^d-graded degrees where the local cohomology H^i_m(\CC[\NA]) at the maximal ideal m is nonzero for some i < d.
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