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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11771 matches for " Laura Ercoli "
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Intestinal parasite infections in immigrant children in the city of Rome, related risk factors and possible impact on nutritional status
Manganelli Laura,Berrilli Federica,Di Cave David,Ercoli Lucia
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-265
Abstract: Background Parasitic diseases can represent a social and economic problem among disadvantaged people - even in developed countries. Due to the limited data available concerning Europe, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the presence of parasites in immigrant children and the risk factors favouring the spread of parasites. Subsequently, the possible correlation between nutritional status and parasitic infections was also investigated. Findings A convenience sample of two hundred and forty seven immigrant children (aged 0–15) attending the Poliambulatorio della Medicina Solidale in Rome was examined. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and parasitological and anthropometric tests were applied. Chi-squared test and binary logistic multiple-regression models were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-seven children (15%) tested positive to parasites of the following species: Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia duodenalis, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis. A monospecific infection was detected in 30 (81%) out of 37 parasitized children, while the others (19%) presented a polyparasitism. The major risk factors were housing, i.e. living in shacks, and cohabitation with other families (p<0.01). Children classified in the lower height Z-scores had a significantly greater prevalence of parasites (30.9%) than the others (p<0.01). Conclusions This study shows that parasite infection in children is still quite common, even in a developed country and that children’s growth and parasitism may be related. Extensive improvements in the living, social and economic conditions of immigrants are urgently needed in order to overcome these problems.
Remobilization of Dry Matter and Nitrogen in Maize as Affected by Hybrid Maturity Class
Silvia Pampana,Laura Ercoli,Alessandro Masoni,Iduna Arduini
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2007, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2009.39
Abstract: The length of the growing cycle is one of the most important traits determining hybrid adaptability to the environment. The objective of this research was to compare in a field trial the pattern of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and remobilization of four commercial maize hybrids belonging to FAO maturity group 400, 500, 600 and 700. The duration of the periods emergence-silking and silking-physiological maturity increased with the increase of hybrid maturity class. Silking occurred 6 days later in the latest maturing hybrid than in the earliest one, and physiological maturity 21 days later. Hybrids differed for biomass production at silking and at physiological maturity. At silking, plant dry weight and leaf area increased with hybrid maturity, owing to greater leaves and stalks. The lengthening of the period emergence-silking allowed a greater accumulation of assimilates in the plant, thus increasing the source of remobilization in the following period. The increase of the length of the period silking-maturity from hybrid 400 to hybrid 700 brought to an increase of dry matter accumulation coupled to a reduction of dry matter remobilization. Increases in hybrid maturity class resulted also in an increase of post-silking N uptake and N remobilization from vegetative plant parts. Thus, the longer period silking-maturity was associated with an increased photosynthetic activity of the plant, which hampered the rate of leaf senescence and deterred the mobilization of reserve carbohydrates for grain filling. Conversely, the longer was the hybrid cycle, the greater was the quantity of both N uptake from soil and remobilized N from vegetative plant parts.
Accumulation of Dry Matter and Nitrogen in Durum Wheat During Grain Filling as Affected by Temperature and Nitrogen Rate
Laura Ercoli,Alessandro Masoni,Marco Mariotti,Iduna Arduini
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2009.1.3
Abstract: Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is commonly grown in mediterranean conditions, where temperature stress during grain filling can limit productivity. This study was conducted to assess the effect of optimal and too high temperature during grain filling on the patterns of accumulation of dry matter and N of durum wheat plants grown at different levels of N fertilization. Two durum wheat varieties, Appio and Creso, were grown in controlled environment conditions and in pots with three rates of nitrogen fertilizer (not applied, normal amount, and high amount) and two air temperature regimes during grain filling (20/15 °C and 28/23 °C day/night). Results showed that the duration of the intervals between the main maturity stages within grain filling were both genotype-specific and temperature- dependent, while N rate did not modify the timing of grain development. The two genotypes responded to temperature by increasing the rate of development, but the thermal timing of development was unchanged with the two temperature regimes. The higher temperature reduced grain growth and increased N accumulation in grain. However, these effects were recorded only in fertilized plants. Nitrogen availability modified the growth of the plant during the whole cycle, in that increased N fertilizer at seeding resulted in a greater plant size at anthesis and in a greater accumulation rate of dry matter and N in grain during grain filling. Grain yield and kernel weight were better expressed at 20/15 °C, while grain protein concentration was favoured under the 28/23 °C temperature regime. Nitrogen fertilization increased the sensitivity of plants to high temperature. Thus, the role of N fertilization under heat stress may be more important than under optimal temperatures.
Remobilization of Dry Matter and Nitrogen in Maize as Affected by Hybrid Maturity Class
Silvia Pampana,Laura Ercoli,Alessandro Masoni,Iduna Arduini
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2009.2.39
Abstract: The length of the growing cycle is one of the most important traits determining hybrid adaptability to the environment. The objective of this research was to compare in a field trial the pattern of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and remobilization of four commercial maize hybrids belonging to FAO maturity group 400, 500, 600 and 700. The duration of the periods emergence-silking and silking-physiological maturity increased with the increase of hybrid maturity class. Silking occurred 6 days later in the latest maturing hybrid than in the earliest one, and physiological maturity 21 days later. Hybrids differed for biomass production at silking and at physiological maturity. At silking, plant dry weight and leaf area increased with hybrid maturity, owing to greater leaves and stalks. The lengthening of the period emergence-silking allowed a greater accumulation of assimilates in the plant, thus increasing the source of remobilization in the following period. The increase of the length of the period silking-maturity from hybrid 400 to hybrid 700 brought to an increase of dry matter accumulation coupled to a reduction of dry matter remobilization. Increases in hybrid maturity class resulted also in an increase of post-silking N uptake and N remobilization from vegetative plant parts. Thus, the longer period silking-maturity was associated with an increased photosynthetic activity of the plant, which hampered the rate of leaf senescence and deterred the mobilization of reserve carbohydrates for grain filling. Conversely, the longer was the hybrid cycle, the greater was the quantity of both N uptake from soil and remobilized N from vegetative plant parts.
Forage potential of winter cereal/legume intercrops in organic farming
Marco Mariotti,Alessandro Masoni,Laura Ercoli,Iduna Arduini
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2006.403
Abstract: This research was performed to assess the potential of cereal/legume intercropping to enhance forage yield and quality when compared with cereal sole crops under the constrains imposed by UE organic farming regulations. Sole crops (SC) and intercrops (IC) of two winter cereals, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), and two legumes, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), were evaluated at two harvest times for dry matter yield (DMY), crude protein concentration (CPC), and nitrogen yield (NY). Yield values and dry matter concentration (DMC) were generally higher when cereals were at the hard dough compared to the late milk stage. On average, intercropping increased forage yield by 72%, NY by 190%, and CPC by 40 g kg-1, compared to cereal sole crops, but the choice of legume species affected the yield advantage and the composition of forage. Land equivalent ratio (LER) of intercrops was always higher than 1, ranging from 1.39 to 1.61. Intercropping also enhanced weed suppression, compared to sole crop.
Remobilization of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Durum Wheat as Affected by Genotype and Environment
Silvia Pampana,Marco Mariotti,Laura Ercoli,Alessandro Masoni
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2008, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2007.303
Abstract: Field studies were carried out to determine dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) assimilation until anthesis and DM, N and P remobilization during grain filling in wheat. Twentyfive durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) varieties were grown in Tuscany at Grosseto and at Arezzo. At Grosseto 76% of DM was assimilated during pre-anthesis while at Arezzo the amount was 81%. At Grosseto 44% and at Arezzo 35% of N was accumulated until anthesis, while 33% of P was stored until anthesis in both localities. Cultivar differences in DM and N remobilization were positively related to pre-anthesis dry matter and N content at anthesis (r > 0.74). Environmental contraints on carbon, N and P availability in the plant are crucial factors in determining grain yield and N and P content in grain, affecting both accumulation and remobilization. In the low rainfall site of Grosseto, most of the grain yield originated from dry matter accumulation, while in the wetter environment of Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally to grain yield. Conversely, at Grosseto grain N content relied most on remobilization and at Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally. Finally, at Grosseto and at Arezzo accumulation of P was the main source of grain P content.
Forage potential of winter cereal/legume intercrops in organic farming
Marco Mariotti,Alessandro Masoni,Laura Ercoli,Iduna Arduini
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2006.403
Abstract: This research was performed to assess the potential of cereal/legume intercropping to enhance forage yield and quality when compared with cereal sole crops under the constrains imposed by UE organic farming regulations. Sole crops (SC) and intercrops (IC) of two winter cereals, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), and two legumes, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), were evaluated at two harvest times for dry matter yield (DMY), crude protein concentration (CPC), and nitrogen yield (NY). Yield values and dry matter concentration (DMC) were generally higher when cereals were at the hard dough compared to the late milk stage. On average, intercropping increased forage yield by 72%, NY by 190%, and CPC by 40 g kg-1, compared to cereal sole crops, but the choice of legume species affected the yield advantage and the composition of forage. Land equivalent ratio (LER) of intercrops was always higher than 1, ranging from 1.39 to 1.61. Intercropping also enhanced weed suppression, compared to sole crop.
Remobilization of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Durum Wheat as Affected by Genotype and Environment
Silvia Pampana,Marco Mariotti,Laura Ercoli,Alessandro Masoni
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2007.303
Abstract: Field studies were carried out to determine dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) assimilation until anthesis and DM, N and P remobilization during grain filling in wheat. Twentyfive durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) varieties were grown in Tuscany at Grosseto and at Arezzo. At Grosseto 76% of DM was assimilated during pre-anthesis while at Arezzo the amount was 81%. At Grosseto 44% and at Arezzo 35% of N was accumulated until anthesis, while 33% of P was stored until anthesis in both localities. Cultivar differences in DM and N remobilization were positively related to pre-anthesis dry matter and N content at anthesis (r > 0.74). Environmental contraints on carbon, N and P availability in the plant are crucial factors in determining grain yield and N and P content in grain, affecting both accumulation and remobilization. In the low rainfall site of Grosseto, most of the grain yield originated from dry matter accumulation, while in the wetter environment of Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally to grain yield. Conversely, at Grosseto grain N content relied most on remobilization and at Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally. Finally, at Grosseto and at Arezzo accumulation of P was the main source of grain P content.
Accumulation of Dry Matter and Nitrogen in Durum Wheat During Grain Filling as Affected by Temperature and Nitrogen Rate
Laura Ercoli,Alessandro Masoni,Marco Mariotti,Iduna Arduini
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2009, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2009.1.3
Abstract: Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is commonly grown in mediterranean conditions, where temperature stress during grain filling can limit productivity. This study was conducted to assess the effect of optimal and too high temperature during grain filling on the patterns of accumulation of dry matter and N of durum wheat plants grown at different levels of N fertilization. Two durum wheat varieties, Appio and Creso, were grown in controlled environment conditions and in pots with three rates of nitrogen fertilizer (not applied, normal amount, and high amount) and two air temperature regimes during grain filling (20/15 °C and 28/23 °C day/night). Results showed that the duration of the intervals between the main maturity stages within grain filling were both genotype-specific and temperature- dependent, while N rate did not modify the timing of grain development. The two genotypes responded to temperature by increasing the rate of development, but the thermal timing of development was unchanged with the two temperature regimes. The higher temperature reduced grain growth and increased N accumulation in grain. However, these effects were recorded only in fertilized plants. Nitrogen availability modified the growth of the plant during the whole cycle, in that increased N fertilizer at seeding resulted in a greater plant size at anthesis and in a greater accumulation rate of dry matter and N in grain during grain filling. Grain yield and kernel weight were better expressed at 20/15 °C, while grain protein concentration was favoured under the 28/23 °C temperature regime. Nitrogen fertilization increased the sensitivity of plants to high temperature. Thus, the role of N fertilization under heat stress may be more important than under optimal temperatures.
Mapping the Global Distribution of Livestock
Timothy P. Robinson, G. R. William Wint, Giulia Conchedda, Thomas P. Van Boeckel, Valentina Ercoli, Elisa Palamara, Giuseppina Cinardi, Laura D'Aietti, Simon I. Hay, Marius Gilbert
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096084
Abstract: Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.
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