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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 178352 matches for " Laura E. Fuhrman "
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High-Throughput Isolation and Mapping of C. elegans Mutants Susceptible to Pathogen Infection
Laura E. Fuhrman, Kevin V. Shianna, Alejandro Aballay
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002882
Abstract: We present a novel strategy that uses high-throughput methods of isolating and mapping C. elegans mutants susceptible to pathogen infection. We show that C. elegans mutants that exhibit an enhanced pathogen accumulation (epa) phenotype can be rapidly identified and isolated using a sorting system that allows automation of the analysis, sorting, and dispensing of C. elegans by measuring fluorescent bacteria inside the animals. Furthermore, we validate the use of Amplifluor? as a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping technique in C. elegans. We show that a set of 9 SNPs allows the linkage of C. elegans mutants to a 5–8 megabase sub-chromosomal region.
Nucleolar Proteins Suppress Caenorhabditis elegans Innate Immunity by Inhibiting p53/CEP-1
Laura E. Fuhrman,Ajay Kumar Goel,Jason Smith,Kevin V. Shianna,Alejandro Aballay
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000657
Abstract: The tumor suppressor p53 has been implicated in multiple functions that play key roles in health and disease, including ribosome biogenesis, control of aging, and cell cycle regulation. A genetic screen for negative regulators of innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans led to the identification of a mutation in NOL-6, a nucleolar RNA-associated protein (NRAP), which is involved in ribosome biogenesis and conserved across eukaryotic organisms. Mutation or silencing of NOL-6 and other nucleolar proteins results in an enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. A full-genome microarray analysis on animals with altered immune function due to mutation in nol-6 shows increased transcriptional levels of genes regulated by a p53 homologue, CEP-1. Further studies indicate that the activation of innate immunity by inhibition of nucleolar proteins requires p53/CEP-1 and its transcriptional target SYM-1. Since nucleoli and p53/CEP-1 are conserved, our results reveal an ancient immune mechanism by which the nucleolus may regulate immune responses against bacterial pathogens.
Regulation of Hepatic Paraoxonase-1 Expression
Bianca Fuhrman
Journal of Lipids , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/684010
Abstract: Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a member of the paraoxonases family (PON1, PON2, and PON3). PON1 is synthesized and secreted by the liver, and in circulation it is associated with HDL. PON1 has antioxidative properties, which are associated with the enzyme’s capability to decrease oxidative stress in atherosclerotic lesions and to attenuate atherosclerosis development. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that low PON1 activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular disease and is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of PON1 activity or PON1 gene expression could constitute a useful approach for preventing atherosclerosis. A primary determinant of serum PON1 levels is the availability of the enzyme for release by the liver, the principal site of PON1 production. Together with the enzyme secretion rate, enzymatic turnover, and protein stability, the level of PON1 gene expression is a major determinant of PON1 status. This paper summarizes recent progress in understanding the regulation of PON1 expression in hepatocytes. 1. Introduction The atherosclerotic lesion is dominated by accumulation of lipid peroxides along with the progression of early plaque development [1]. Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an HDL-associated lipolactonase, which is synthesized and secreted by the liver [2]. PON1 has antioxidative properties, which are associated with the enzyme’s capability to protect LDL [3], as well as HDL [4] from oxidation, to decrease macrophage oxidative status [5], to stimulate cholesterol efflux from macrophages [6], to decrease oxidative status in atherosclerotic lesions [7], and to attenuate atherosclerosis development. Immunohistochemical analysis has revealed accumulation of PON1 in the human atherosclerotic lesion as it progresses from fatty streak to advanced lesion [8]. Recently it was demonstrated that PON1 acts to reduce the oxidizing potency of lipids in atherosclerotic lesions, thus providing protection against oxidation [9]. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that low PON1 activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events [10] and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease [11]. A variety of nongenetic factors have been shown to influence serum PON1 levels and activity. PON1 undergoes inactivation under oxidative stress and its activity is preserved by dietary antioxidants [12]. Moderate daily consumption of alcohol [13], vitamin C and E [14], wine [15], or pomegranate juice [16], increased serum levels of PON1 in
Rehabilitating Information
Gary Fuhrman
Entropy , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/e12020164
Abstract: In an early paper on logic, C.S. Peirce defined a concept of ‘information’ very different from the later conceptions which gave rise to ‘information science’, and indirectly to current problems such as an overload of ‘useless information’. A study of further developments in Peircean semiotics, and in related conceptual frameworks including the cybernetics of Bateson and the cybersemiotics of Brier, reveals deep relations between Peirce's concept of information and the irreducibly triadic nature of signs. Since all sciences, indeed all cognition and communication, are semiotic processes, the core semiotic principle implicit in the Peircean concept may clarify how our uses of language and other symbolic media can actually inform–and thus transform–the way we humans inhabit the biosphere.
Fuhrman, G. Rehabilitating Information. Entropy, 2010, 12, 164-196
Gary Fuhrman
Entropy , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/e12030326
Abstract: The author would like to change the phrase “the financial ‘meltdown’ of 1908” into “the financial ‘meltdown’ of 2008” on page 190 of the article. [...]
Dynamical structure factor of quasi-2D antiferromagnet in high fields
W. T. Fuhrman,M. Mourigal,M. E. Zhitomirsky,A. L. Chernyshev
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.184405
Abstract: We study high-field magnon dynamics and examine the dynamical structure factor in the quasi-2D tetragonal Heisenberg antiferromagnet with interlayer coupling corresponding to realistic materials. Within spin-wave theory, we show that a non-zero interlayer coupling mitigates singular corrections to the excitation spectrum occurring in the high-field regime that would otherwise require a self-consistent approach beyond the 1/S approximation. For the fields between the threshold for decays and saturation field we observe widening of the two-magnon sidebands with significant shifting of the spectral weight away from the quasiparticle peak. We find spectrum broadening throughout large regions of the Brillouin zone, dramatic redistributions of spectral weight to the two-magnon continuum, two-peak structures and other features clearly unlike conventional single-particle peaks.
Dynamical structure factor of triangular-lattice antiferromagnet
M. Mourigal,W. T. Fuhrman,A. L. Chernyshev,M. E. Zhitomirsky
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.094407
Abstract: We elucidate the role of magnon interaction and spontaneous decays in the spin dynamics of the triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet by calculating its dynamical structure factor within the spin-wave theory. Explicit theoretical results for neutron-scattering intensity are provided for spins S=1/2 and S=3/2. The dynamical structure factor exhibits unconventional features such as quasiparticle peaks broadened by decays, non-Lorentzian lineshapes, and significant spectral weight redistribution to the two-magnon continuum. This rich excitation spectrum illustrates the complexity of the triangular-lattice antiferromagnet and provides distinctive qualitative and quantitative fingerprints for experimental observation of decay-induced magnon dynamics.
The Cosmic Bellows: The Big Bang and the Second Law
Stanley Salthe,Gary Fuhrman
Cosmos and History : the Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy , 2006,
Abstract: We present here a cosmological myth, alternative (but complementary) to "the Universe Story" and "the Epic of Evolution", highlighting the roles of entropy and dissipative structures in the universe inaugurated by the Big Bang. Our myth offers answers these questions: Where are we? What are we? Why are we here? What are we to do? It also offers answers to a set of "why" questions: Why is there anything at all? and Why are there so many kinds of systems? - the answers coming from cosmology and physics (thermodynamics); Why do systems not last once they exist? - the answer coming from a materialist interpretation of information theory; and, Why are systems just the way they are and not otherwise? - the answer coming from evolutionary biology. We take into account the four kinds of causation designated by Aristotle as efficient, final, and material formal, with the Second Law of thermodynamics in the role of final cause. Conceptual problems concerning reductionism, "teleology", and the choice/chance distinction are dealt with in the framework of specification hierarchy, and the moral implications of our story explored in the conclusion.
The Cosmic Bellows: The Big Bang and the Second Law
Stanley Salthe,Gary Fuhrman
Cosmos and History : the Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy , 2005,
Abstract: We present here a cosmological myth, alternative (but complementary) to "the Universe Story" and "the Epic of Evolution", highlighting the roles of entropy and dissipative structures in the universe inaugurated by the Big Bang. Our myth offers answers these questions: Where are we? What are we? Why are we here? What are we to do? It also offers answers to a set of "why" questions: Why is there anything at all? and Why are there so many kinds of systems? - the answers coming from cosmology and physics (thermodynamics); Why do systems not last once they exist? - the answer coming from a materialist interpretation of information theory; and, Why are systems just the way they are and not otherwise? - the answer coming from evolutionary biology. We take into account the four kinds of causation designated by Aristotle as efficient, final, and material formal, with the Second Law of thermodynamics in the role of final cause. Conceptual problems concerning reductionism, "teleology", and the choice/chance distinction are dealt with in the framework of specification hierarchy, and the moral implications of our story explored in the conclusion.
Melanocytic Nevi as Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk
Barbara Fuhrman ,Victor Cardenas
PLOS Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001661
Abstract:
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