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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12522 matches for " Laura Bernardi "
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Preface to the Rostock Debate on Demographic Change
Laura Bernardi,Pascal Hetze
Demographic Research , 2011,
Abstract: The first Rostock Debate on Demographic Change, which took place on February 21, 2006, centered on the following question: Should governments in Europe push much more aggressively for gender equality to raise fertility? The four debaters were Laurent Toulemon from the Institut National d'Etudes Demograhiques (France), Dimiter Philipov from the Vienna Institute of Demography (Austria), Livia Oláh from Stockholm University (Sweden), and Gerda Neyer from the Max Planck Institute (Germany)
The anthropological demography of Europe
Laura Bernardi,Inge Hutter
Demographic Research , 2007,
Abstract: This paper introduces a collection of related research studies on the anthropological demography of Europe. Anthropological demography is a specialty within demography that uses anthropological theory and methods to provide a better understanding of demographic phenomena in current and past populations. Its genesis and ongoing growth lies at the intersection of demography and socio-cultural anthropology and with their efforts to understand population processes: mainly fertility, migration, and mortality. Both disciplines share a common research subject, namely human populations, and they focus on mutually complementary aspects. The authors of this paper focus on the differences between the disciplines of anthropology and demography, the emergence of anthropological demography and its theoretical, methodological, and empirical aspects. In addition, they critically summarize the contributions that were presented in the first workshop of the Working Group on Anthropological Demography of Europe of the European Association for Population Studies, held in Rostock in Fall 2005 and reflect on how these papers add to the further development of anthropological demography in Europe, i.e. elaborating the epistemology of anthropological demography; applying additional theoretical perspectives to better understand demographic behaviour in Europe ; illustrating the way in which culture plays a role in case studies on European demographic behaviour; and emphasizing the need for a holistic approach to data collection and the added value of triangulating quantitative and qualitative analyses.
Meanings and attitudes attached to cohabitation in Poland: Qualitative analyses of the slow diffusion of cohabitation among the young generation
Monika Mynarska,Laura Bernardi
Demographic Research , 2007,
Abstract: This study contributes to the understanding of the low level of non-marital cohabitation in Poland at the beginning of the XXI century. We employ an interpretative analysis of semi-structured interviews in order to capture the meanings and attitudes associated to non-marital cohabitation by a selected sample of young Poles. The results indicate that although cohabitation has begun to be interpreted as a testing period leading to marriage, attitudes towards it are still very ambiguous. The idealization of marital commitment hinders the spread of informal unions. Understanding the determinants of low cohabitation in Poland enables us to advance grounded hypotheses on its evolution in the near future and, more generally, to illustrate the ways in which local cultures influence the diffusion of behaviors.
Concepts and Operationalisation of Reproductive Decisions. Implementation in Austria, Germany and Switzerland
Dimiter Philipov,Laura Bernardi
Comparative Population Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.4232/10.cpos-2011-14en
Abstract: Recently the difference between actual and hypothetical fertility (fertility gap) has served as an indication to enforce family policies with the purpose to increase births. This paper examines the relevance of hypothetical fertility measured with fertility ideals and intentions, to the estimation of the gap. Based on a literature review we discuss the meaning of these concepts and their operationalisation with empirical observations in three German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany, and Switzerland). Although the concept of societal ideal fertility is ambiguous it can be useful for understanding reproductive decisions when measured scrupulously. Operationalisation of short-term and long-term fertility intentions is discussed, along with their realisation. Analyses of intentions should rest on a theoretical background, such as the Miller-Pasta framework and the socio-psychological theory of planned behaviour. The latter is implemented in Austria and Germany using GGS data. The paper concludes that the fertility gap can be misleading both because the indicator of actual fertility as well as indicators of intended fertility can be imprecise. Useful policy-relevant information can be received by a specific form of the gap, when realisation of individual short-term intentions is considered.
Konzepte und Operationalisierung von reproduktiven Entscheidungen. Am Beispiel sterreichs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz
Dimiter Philipov,Laura Bernardi
Comparative Population Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.4232/10.cpos-2011-14de
Abstract: Die Diskrepanz zwischen tats chlicher und hypothetischer Fertilit t (im Englischen auch unter dem Begriff Fertility Gap gebr uchlich) wurde in jüngerer Zeit zum Anlass für familienpolitische Ma nahmen genommen, um eine h here Geburtenh ufigkeit zu erzielen. Dieser Beitrag untersucht die Relevanz einer anhand von Fertilit tsidealen und -absichten gemessenen hypothetischen Fertilit t, mit der die Sch tzung des Fertility Gap angestrebt wird. Ausgehend von einem überblick der relevanten Literatur untersuchen wir die Bedeutung dieser Konzepte und deren Operationalisierung anhand empirischer Beobachtungen in drei Vergleichsl ndern: sterreich, Deutschland und der Schweiz. Wenngleich der Begriff des gesellschaftlichen Ideals der Fertilit t mehrdeutig ist, kann er bei sorgf ltiger Messung Aussagekraft in Bezug auf Reproduktionsentscheidungen bieten. Die Operationalisierung kurzfristiger und langfristiger Fertilit tsabsichten wird ebenso er rtert wie deren Realisierung. Analysen von Absichten sollten auf einem theoretischen Fundament gründen, etwa dem Miller-Pasta-Rahmen oder der sozialpsychologischen Theorie des geplanten Verhaltens. Letztere findet in sterreich und in Deutschland auf Grundlage von GGS-Daten Anwendung. Der Beitrag kommt zu dem Schluss, dass anhand des Fertility Gap mitunter falsche Schlüsse gezogen werden k nnen, da sowohl der Indikator der tats chlichen Fertilit t als auch die Indikatoren der beabsichtigten Fertilit t unpr zise sein k nnen. Aufschlussreiche politisch relevante Informationen k nnen aus einer spezifischen Form der Diskrepanz abgeleitet werden, wenn die Realisierung der individuellen kurzfristigen Absichten des Einzelnen betrachtet wird.
Alimenta??o complementar de lactentes em uma cidade desenvolvida no contexto de um país em desenvolvimento
Bernardi,Julia Laura Delbue; Jord?o,Regina Esteves; Barros Filho,Ant?nio Azevedo;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892009001100004
Abstract: objective: to establish the timing for introducing supplementary foods in the diet of infants from the city of campinas, state of s?o paulo, brazil. methods: this cross-sectional study included 2 857 children younger than 2 years of age randomly selected from the city department of health live birth database between 2004 and 2005. the mothers answered a questionnaire that included 87 closed questions designed to collect information concerning socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and timing of introduction of supplementary foods. results: assessment of the mothers revealed that 13.5% were adolescents, 73.1% had completed elementary or high school education, 45.9% had technical level jobs, 6,7% had jobs requiring a university degree, and 2.7% were health professionals. on average, participants belonged to socioeconomic class c (ranging from a, highest, to e, lowest), but all socioeconomic classes were represented. the median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 90 days (95%ci: 87.6-92.4). water (95%ci: 118.6-121.4) and tea (95ci%: 113.2-126.8) were introduced at a median of 120 days. semi-solid foods (95%ci: 178.6-181,4) and powdered milk (95%ci: 169.0-191.0) were introduced at a median of 180 days. powdered milk and soft drinks had been ingested by 39.1% and 2.1%, respectively, at 4 months, and by 63.2 and 69.1%, respectively, at 1 year of age. shorter breastfeeding duration was observed for women with technical level jobs, those who were unemployed, and those without a partner. conclusions: the median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was far from that recommended due to the offer of supplementary fluids. supplementary foods were introduced precociously, especially sweets.
Introdu??o alimentar e anemia em lactentes do município de Campinas (SP)
Jord?o, Regina Esteves;Bernardi, Júlia Laura D.;Barros Filho, Ant?nio de Azevedo;
Revista Paulista de Pediatria , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-05822009000400006
Abstract: objective: to verify the prevalence of anemia associated with the introduction of complementary food in children less than two years old in the city of campinas, s?o paulo, brazil. methods: a cross-sectional survey was performed in 354 children between 6 and 12 months of age which were registered in the live births information system from campinas area. health professionals interviewed the mothers, who answered a questionnaire about food introduction and socioeconomic status. capillary blood was collected and the hemoglobin level was determined by hemocue?. anemia was diagnosed if hemoglobin level was below 11g/dl. survival analysis was performed to determine the influence of complementary food introduction on anemia. results: 66.5% of the children had hemoglobin levels lower than 11g/dl. anemia was associated to early introduction of the family diet (p=0.036), bread (p=0.012), yogurt (p=0.006), soft drinks (p=0.005), candies (p=0.005) and snacks (p=0.013). conclusions: inadequate complementary food introduction is associated with anemia. this information should be addressed by health programs in order to prevent anemia in children.
Prevalência de anemia ferropriva no Brasil: uma revis?o sistemática
Jord?o, Regina Esteves;Bernardi, Júlia Laura D.;Barros Filho, Ant?nio de Azevedo;
Revista Paulista de Pediatria , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-05822009000100014
Abstract: objective: to conduct a systematic review on the prevalence of anemia due to iron-deficiency in brazil from january 1996 to january 2007. data sources: a systematic review was conducted in electronic databases (medline and lilacs) in an eleven-year interval to verify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in children who were less than five years of age in brazil. reviews, case reports and studies related to anemia during pregnancy and anemia caused by others diseases were excluded. in order to describe the categorical variables according to the selected articles, the chi-square and fisher exact tests were used. the significance level adopted was 5% (p<0.05). data synthesis: the median prevalence level of anemia was 53%, which is considered a high prevalence rate by the world health organization. among the 53 analyzed studies, the age of the children was the variable strongly associated with anemia (p=0.012). conclusions: a high prevalence of anemia, mostly in children less than two years of age, was observed in this review. however, most studies were carried out in day care centers or in basic health care units or were obtained by home interviews, suggesting that future research should focus populational studies.
Fatores associados à dura??o mediana do aleitamento materno em lactentes nascidos em município do estado de S?o Paulo
Bernardi, Julia Laura Delbue;Jord?o, Regina Esteves;Barros Filho, Ant?nio de Azevedo;
Revista de Nutri??o , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-52732009000600008
Abstract: objective: the aim of this study was to verify the proportion of breastfed infants and correlate it with sociodemographic data in campinas (sp), brazil. methods: between 2004 and 2005, interviewers visited 2,857 homes of children under two years of age and interviewed their mothers with a structured questionnaire containing questions regarding their socioeconomic level, breastfeeding practices and complementary foods. this randomized, cross-sectional, population-based study was based on data of "children born alive" and on the prevalence of breastfeeding. the median breastfeeding duration was determined by kaplan meier's survival analysis and the time was adjusted by cox's multivariate analysis. the significance level was set at 5%. results: median exclusive breastfeeding was 90 days (ci 95%: 87.6 - 92.4); and median general breastfeeding was 120 days (ci 95%: 117.7 - 122.3). at 1 month of age, 66.2% of the children were exclusively breastfed; this percentage decreased to 2.3% at 6 months of age. tea and powdered milk were introduced at a median age of 120 days (ci 95%: 113.2 - 126.8 and ci 95%: 112.7 - 127.3 respectively). the child's skin color and the mother's education level, profession and marital status were associated with breastfeeding duration and practices. conclusion: sociodemographic factors can interfere in median breastfeeding duration. although the median breastfeeding duration in campinas is better than elsewhere in brazil, it is below the internationally recommended median, the city needs to invest more in this area.
Cross-sectional study on the weight and length of infants in the interior of the State of S?o Paulo, Brazil: associations with sociodemographic variables and breastfeeding
Bernardi, Julia Laura Delbue;Jord?o, Regina Esteves;Barros Filho, Ant?nio de Azevedo;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31802009000400004
Abstract: context and objective: increasing obesity is starting to occur among brazilians. the aim of this study was to investigate the weight and length of children under two years of age in relation to sociodemographic variables and according to whether they were breastfed. design and setting: cross-sectional randomized study conducted in 2004-2005, based on the declaration of live births (sinasc) in campinas, brazil. methods: 2,857 mothers of newborns were interviewed and answered a questionnaire seeking socioeconomic and breastfeeding information. the newborns' weights and lengths were measured at the end of the interviews and the body mass index was calculated. percentiles (< 15 and > 85) and z-scores (< -1 and > +1) were used for classification based on the new growth charts recommended by who (2006). the log-rank test, multiple linear regression and binomial test (z) were used. the statistical significance level used was 5%. results: the predominant social level was class c. the median for exclusive breastfeeding was 90 days; 61.25% of the children were between p15 and p85 for body mass index and 61.12% for length, respectively. children whose mothers studied for nine to eleven years and children whose mothers were unemployed presented lower weight. children whose mothers worked in health-related professions presented lower length when correlated with breastfeeding. conclusion: the breastfeeding, maternal schooling and maternal occupation levels had an influence on nutrition status and indicated that obesity is occurring in early childhood among the infants living in the municipality.
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