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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 155986 matches for " Laura B. Matthews "
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Bioavailability of Soy Protein and Corn Zein Films  [PDF]
Laura B. Matthews, M. Elizabeth Kunkel, James C. Acton, Amod A. Ogale, Paul L. Dawson
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210148
Abstract: The in vivo bioavailability of soy protein isolates and corn zein film material before and after film formation by heat/ pressure was determined. The In vitro digestibility of corn zein before and after film formation was also measured. Films were produced from anhydrous protein with 30% glycerol added using a heat-press method with no use of casting solvents or cross-linking agents. Corn zein raw and film material were ground under liquid nitrogen then digested in two enzyme-acid cocktails with free amino acid analysis before and after digestion. The protein efficiency ratio and net protein ratio were determined for both zein and soy protein using a weanling Sprague-Dawley descended rat feeding study. The In vitro digestibility study indicated that the non-heat pressed corn zein was more digestible than the heat pressed zein. However, the in vivo results indicated that corn and soy protein were equally bioavailable whether they were derived from film mixture prior to or after film formation. Both corn zein and soy protein material had lower protein efficiency ratio than the control diet. Furthermore, soy protein films materials had a higher protein efficiency ratio than corn zein.
CCBE1 Mutation in Two Siblings, One Manifesting Lymphedema-Cholestasis Syndrome, and the Other, Fetal Hydrops
Sohela Shah, Laura K. Conlin, Luis Gomez, ?ystein Aagenaes, Kristin Eiklid, A. S. Knisely, Michael T. Mennuti, Randolph P. Matthews, Nancy B. Spinner, Laura N. Bull
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075770
Abstract: Background Lymphedema-cholestasis syndrome (LCS; Aagenaes syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by 1) neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis, often lessening and becoming intermittent with age, and 2) severe chronic lymphedema, mainly lower limb. LCS was originally described in a Norwegian kindred in which a locus, LCS1, was mapped to a 6.6cM region on chromosome 15. Mutations in CCBE1 on chromosome 18 have been reported in some cases of lymphatic dysplasia, but not in LCS. Methods Consanguineous parents of Mexican ancestry had a child with LCS who did not exhibit extended homozygosity in the LCS1 region. A subsequent pregnancy was electively terminated due to fetal hydrops. We performed whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping to identify regions of homozygosity in these siblings, and sequenced promising candidate genes. Results Both siblings harbored a homozygous mutation in CCBE1, c.398 T>C, predicted to result in the missense change p.L133P. Regions containing known ‘cholestasis genes’ did not demonstrate homozygosity in the LCS patient. Conclusions Mutations in CCBE1 may yield a phenotype not only of lymphatic dysplasia, but also of LCS or fetal hydrops; however, the possibility that the sibling with LCS also carries a homozygous mutation in an unidentified gene influencing cholestasis cannot be excluded.
Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement – Part 2: Field comparison in the Central Tropical Pacific
J. B. R. Matthews,J. B. Matthews
Ocean Science Discussions (OSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/osd-9-2975-2012
Abstract: Discrepancies between historical Sea Surface Temperature (SST) datasets have been partly ascribed to use of different adjustments for variable measurement methods. Until recently adjustments had only been applied to bucket temperatures from the late 19th and early 20th century, with the aim of correcting their supposed coolness relative to engine cooling water intake temperatures (EIT). In the UK Met Office Hadley Centre SST 3 dataset (HadSST3) adjustments are applied to observations over its full duration, including those obtained by other methods. Here we evaluate such adjustments by direct field comparison of historical and modern methods of SST measurement. We compare wood, canvas and rubber bucket temperatures to 3 m seawater intake temperature along a Central Tropical Pacific transect conducted in May and June 2008. In contrast to the prevailing view we find no average differences between bucket temperatures obtained with different bucket types. Moreover, we observe strong near-surface temperature gradients day and night, indicating intake and bucket temperatures cannot be considered equivalent in this region. We suggest engine intake temperatures are unreliable as a source of SST given that they are often obtained by untrained non-scientist observers with low precision, inaccurate instruments at unknown intake depth. Using a physical model we demonstrate that warming of intake seawater by engine room air is unlikely a cause of negative average bucket-intake temperature differences, as sometimes suggested. We propose removal of intake temperatures and bucket adjustments from historical SST records and posit this will lead to their better capture of real long-term trends.
Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement – Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments
J. B. R. Matthews
Ocean Science Discussions (OSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/osd-9-2951-2012
Abstract: Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements have been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the post-industrial period. Today most measurements come from ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and in engine cooling water intakes. Engine intake temperatures are generally thought to average a few tenths of a °C warmer than simultaneous bucket temperatures. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies comparing shipboard methods by field experiment and adjustments applied to SST datasets to account for variable methods. In opposition to contemporary thinking, I find average bucket-intake temperature differences reported from field studies inconclusive. Non-zero average differences often have associated standard deviations that are several times larger than the averages themselves. Further, average differences have been found to vary widely between ships and between cruises on the same ship. The cause of non-zero average differences is typically unclear given the general absence of additional temperature observations to those from buckets and engine intakes. Shipboard measurements appear of variable quality, highly dependent upon the accuracy and precision of the thermometer used and the care of the observer where manually read. Methods are generally poorly documented, with written instructions not necessarily reflecting actual practices of merchant mariners. Measurements cannot be expected to be of high quality where obtained by untrained sailors using thermometers of low accuracy and precision.
Detectability of Planetesimal Impacts on Giant Exoplanets
Laura Flagg,Alycia J. Weinberger,Keith Matthews
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.024
Abstract: The detectability of planetesimal impacts on imaged exoplanets can be measured using Jupiter during the 1994 comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 events as a proxy. By integrating the whole planet flux with and without impact spots, the effect of the impacts at wavelengths from 2 - 4 microns is revealed. Jupiter's reflected light spectrum in the near-infrared is dominated by its methane opacity including a deep band at 2.3 microns. After the impact, sunlight that would have normally been absorbed by the large amount of methane in Jupiter's atmosphere was instead reflected by the cometary material from the impacts. As a result, at 2.3 microns, where the planet would normally have low reflectivity, it brightened substantially and stayed brighter for at least a month.
Minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic necrosis
Brian Bello,Jeffrey B Matthews
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i46.6829
Abstract: AIM: To systematically review these minimally invasive approaches to infected pancreatic necrosis. METHODS: We used the MEDLINE database to investigate studies between 1996 and 2010 with greater than 10 patients that examined these techniques. Using a combination of Boolean operators, reports were retrieved addressing percutaneous therapy (341 studies), endoscopic necrosectomy (574 studies), laparoscopic necrosectomy via a transperitoneal approach (148 studies), and retroperitoneal necrosectomy (194 studies). Only cohorts with at least 10 or more patients were included. Non-English papers, letters, animal studies, duplicate series and reviews without original data were excluded, leaving a total of 27 studies for analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies with 947 patients total were examined (eight studies on percutaneous approach; ten studies on endoscopic necrosectomy; two studies on laparoscopic necrosectomy via a transperitoneal approach; five studies on retroperitoneal necrosectomy; and two studies on a combined percutaneous-retroperitoneal approach). Success rate, complications, mortality, and number of procedures were outcomes that were included in the review. We found that most published reports were retrospective in nature, and thus, susceptible to selection and publication bias. Few reports examined these techniques in a comparative, prospective manner. CONCLUSION: Each minimally invasive approach though was found to be safe and feasible in multiple reports. With these new techniques, treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis remains a challenge. We advocate a multidisciplinary approach to this complex problem with treatment individualized to each patient.
Entanglement can increase asymptotic rates of zero-error classical communication over classical channels
Debbie Leung,Laura Mancinska,William Matthews,Maris Ozols,Aidan Roy
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s00220-012-1451-x
Abstract: It is known that the number of different classical messages which can be communicated with a single use of a classical channel with zero probability of decoding error can sometimes be increased by using entanglement shared between sender and receiver. It has been an open question to determine whether entanglement can ever increase the zero-error communication rates achievable in the limit of many channel uses. In this paper we show, by explicit examples, that entanglement can indeed increase asymptotic zero-error capacity, even to the extent that it is equal to the normal capacity of the channel. Interestingly, our examples are based on the exceptional simple root systems E7 and E8.
On chains and posets within the power set of a continuum
P. T. Matthews,T. B. M. McMaster
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1995, DOI: 10.1155/s016117129500038x
Abstract: Transfinite induction is employed to construct a copy of an arbitrary partially-ordered set of cardinality at most c within the power set (quasi-ordered by sub-chain embeddability) of the real line.
Variation in Body Shape across Species and Populations in a Radiation of Diaptomid Copepods
Stephen Hausch, Jonathan B. Shurin, Blake Matthews
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068272
Abstract: Inter and intra-population variation in morphological traits, such as body size and shape, provides important insights into the ecological importance of individual natural populations. The radiation of Diaptomid species (~400 species) has apparently produced little morphological differentiation other than those in secondary sexual characteristics, suggesting sexual, rather than ecological, selection has driven speciation. This evolutionary history suggests that species, and conspecific populations, would be ecologically redundant but recent work found contrasting ecosystem effects among both species and populations. This study provides the first quantification of shape variation among species, populations, and/or sexes (beyond taxonomic illustrations and body size measurements) to gain insight into the ecological differentiation of Diaptomids. Here we quantify the shape of five Diaptomid species (family Diaptomidae) from four populations each, using morphometric landmarks on the prosome, urosome, and antennae. We partition morphological variation among species, populations, and sexes, and test for phenotype-by-environment correlations to reveal possible functional consequences of shape variation. We found that intraspecific variation was 18-35% as large as interspecific variation across all measured traits. Interspecific variation in body size and relative antennae length, the two traits showing significant sexual dimorphism, were correlated with lake size and geographic location suggesting some niche differentiation between species. Observed relationships between intraspecific morphological variation and the environment suggest that divergent selection in contrasting lakes might contribute to shape differences among local populations, but confirming this requires further analyses. Our results show that although Diaptomid species differ in their reproductive traits, they also differ in other morphological traits that might indicate ecological differences among species and populations.
The Star Formation Histories and Efficiencies of Two Giant HII Regions in M33
C. D. Wilson,B. C. Matthews
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1086/176561
Abstract: $UBV$ photometry is used to re-identify the OB associations which power the two most luminous HII regions in M33, NGC 604 and NGC 595. There is a significant difference (2-3 Myr) in the ages of the most recent star formation episode in these two regions, while NGC 595 also has undergone a prior episode of star formation (10-15 Myr ago). These data, combined with the presence of molecular clouds in the heart of NGC 604, suggest that molecular clouds may survive at least one intense episode of massive star formation. The star formation efficiencies (mass of stars per mass of gas) of these two HII regions are up to a factor of 3 larger than the average efficiency in the inner disk of M33 or in Galactic molecular clouds, but are still only 2-5\%.
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