oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2020 ( 23 )

2019 ( 228 )

2018 ( 241 )

2017 ( 245 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145087 matches for " Laszlo B. Kish "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /145087
Display every page Item
Weight fluctuations of information storage media
Laszlo B. Kish
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: In this essentially Unsolved Problems of Noise (UPoN) paper we further study the question recently posed in Fluctuation and Noise Letters (December 2007), if there is and interaction between bodies with correlated information content, and weather the observed weight transients during/after changing the information content in memory devices is due to a new type of interaction, a new type of "fifth force", or it is only a classical mechanism. We briefly discuss the issue of the great experimental uncertainty of the Newtonian gravitation constant. We also mention the peculiar experiments about sudden weight changes of humans and animals at the moment of death. The extended monitoring of four 4GB flash drives with no casing and various information content indicate a significant correlation between their weight variations and the fluctuations of ambient humidity. This is an evidence for the role of humidity and hygroscopic components, at least, for long-term weight fluctuations. A sequence of information changing experiments with such a flash drives at stable humidity conditions shows a significant variability of the transients of the absolute mass with some dependence on the information content. Finally, a related new experiment was carried out with olive oil and chilli pepper powder that was dissolved in it while the mass variations were recorded and a positive mass transient of 0.3 milligram was observed for about 10 minutes. The process represents the writing of new random information into a medium. The only classical interpretation of this mechanism would be the compression of trapped air between the grains by the surface tension of the oil, or that of in pores by capillary forces, and the resulting decrease of the Archimedes force due volume reduction.
Absolutely Secure Communications by Johnson-like Noise and Kirchhoff's Laws
Laszlo B. Kish
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We survey the most important results and some recent developments about the secure key exchange protocol where the security is based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the robustness of classical physical information. We conclude that a classical physical system offers a higher level of control and security during the communication. We also mention some recent attempts inspired by this communicator to create other systems where Alice and Bob do not form an organic single system and/or the Second Law is irrelevant. It seems philosophically that they cannot be unconditionally secure, however it is yet an open question how to crack them; how can they be best used for conditionally secure communications, and what are the practical implications.
Protection against the man-in-the-middle-attack for the Kirchhoff-loop-Johnson(-like)-noise cipher and expansion by voltage-based security
Laszlo B. Kish
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1142/S0219477506003148
Abstract: It is shown that the original Kirchhoff-loop-Johnson(-like)-noise (KLJN) cipher is naturally protected against the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack, if the eavesdropper is using resistors and noise voltage generators just like the sender and the receiver. The eavesdropper can extract zero bit of information before she is discovered. However, when the eavesdropper is using noise current generators, though the cipher is protected, the eavesdropper may still be able to extract one bit of information while she is discovered. For enhanced security, we expand the KLJN cipher with the comparison of the instantaneous voltages via the public channel. In this way, the sender and receiver has a full control over the security of measurable physical quantities in the Kirchhoff-loop. We show that when the sender and receiver compare not only their instantaneous current data but also their instantaneous voltage data then the zero-bit security holds even for the noise current generator case. We show that the original KLJN scheme is also zero-bit protected against that type of MITM attack when the eavesdropper uses voltage noise generators, only. In conclusion, within the idealized model scheme, the man-in-the-middle-attack does not provide any advantage compared to the regular attack considered earlier. The remaining possibility is the attack by a short, large current pulse, which described in the original paper as the only efficient type of regular attacks, and that yields the one bit security. In conclusion, the KLJN cipher is superior to known quantum communication schemes in every respect, including speed, robustness, maintenance need, price and its natural immunity against the man-in-the-middle attack.
Response to Feng Hao's paper "Kish's key exchange scheme is insecure"
Laszlo B. Kish
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: In a forthcoming paper in IEE Proceedings Information Security, Feng Hao claims that temperature inaccuracies make the key exchange scheme based on Kirchhoff Loop with Johnson-like Noise insecure. First we point out that this claim is irrelevant for the security of the idealized/mathematical communicator because it violates basic assumptions. Furthermore, in general practical applications, as it has been pointed out in the very first paper, the use of thermal noise is disadvantageous therefore the issue of temperature and its accuracy is unimportant even for the security of common practical realizations. It is important to emphasize that any deviation from the idealized scheme can lead to a finite level of security. Thus, if the above-mentioned author had stressed the inaccuracy of the resistor values; his claim would have been practically valid. However the impact of such systematic errors can be kept under control. Here we cite our relevant analysis (Phys. Lett. A 359, (2006) 741-744) of 1% voltage inaccuracy along the line due to wire resistance effects, which can be considered as a general result for inaccuracies of this order. The necessity to build a statistics to extract information during the properly chosen clock time leads to extremely poor eavesdropper statistics and this situation provides a good practical raw bit security that can be orders of magnitude beyond the raw bit security of idealized quantum communicators.
"Gravitational mass" of information?
Laszlo B. Kish
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1142/S0219477507004148
Abstract: We hypothesize possible new types of forces that would be the result of new types of interactions, static and a slow transient, between objects with related information contents (pattern). Such mechanism could make material composition dependence claimed by Fishbach, et al in Eotvos type experiments plausible. We carried out experiments by using a high-resolution scale with the following memories: USB-2 flash drives (1-16GB), DVD and CD disks to determine if such an interaction exist/detectable with a scale resolution of 10 microgram with these test objects. We applied zero information, white noise and 1/f noise type data. Writing or deleting the information in any of these devices causes peculiar negative weight transients, up to milligrams (mass fraction around 10^-5), which is followed by various types of relaxation processes. These relaxations have significantly different dynamics compared to transients observed during cooling after stationary external heating. Interestingly, a USB-1 MP3 player has also developed comparable transient mass loss during playing music. A classical interpretation of the negative weight transients could be absorbed water in hygroscopic components however comparison of relaxation time constants with air humidity data does not support an obvious explanation. Another classical interpretation with certain contribution is the lifting Bernoulli force caused by the circulation due to convection of the warm air. However, in this case all observed time constants with a device should have been the same unless some hidden parameter causes the observed variations. Further studies are warranted to clarify if there is indeed a new force, which is showing up as negative mass at weight measurement when high-density structural information is changed or read out (measured).
Noise-driven informatics: secure classical communications via wire and noise-based computing
Laszlo B. Kish
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: In this paper, we show recent results indicating that using electrical noise as information carrier offers outstanding potentials reminding of quantum informatics. One example is noise-based computing and logic that shows certain similarities to quantum logic. However, due to the lack of the collapse of wavefunction and due to the immediate accessibility of superposition components, the use of noise-based and quantum computers will probably be different. Another example is secure communications where, out of the unconditional security at idealistic situations, a practical security beyond known quantum solutions can be achieved and has been demonstrated. Here the keys to security are the robustness of classical information, and the second law of thermodynamics. These offer the avoidance of making error statistics and single bit security. It has the potential to restrict the practical applications of quantum communicators to the situations where no wire can be used but optical communication via fiber or via space is possible.
Noise-based communication and computing
Laszlo B. Kish
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: We discuss the speed-error-heat triangle and related problems with rapidly increasing energy dissipation and error rate during miniaturization. These and the independently growing need of unconditional data security have provoked non-conventional approaches in the physics of informatics. Noise-based informatics is a potentially promising possibility which is the way how biological brains process the information. Recently, it has been shown that thermal noise and its electronically enhanced versions (Johnson-like noises) can be utilized as information carrier with peculiar properties. Relevant examples are Zero power (stealth) communication, Unconditionally secure communication with Johnson(-like) noise and Kirchhoff loop and Noise-driven computing. The zero power communication utilizes the equilibrium background noise in the channel to transfer information. The unconditionally secure communication is based on the properties of Johnson(-like) noise and those of a simple Kirchhoff's loop. The scheme utilizes on the robustness of classical information and the second law of thermodynamics. It uncovers active eavesdropping within a single clock period (no error statistics is required) and it is naturally protected against the man-in-the-middle attack. Further advantages of the scheme is that the circuitry can easily be integrated on computer chips, unconditionally secure computer processors, memories and other hardware can be realized.
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
Laszlo B. Kish
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2008.12.068
Abstract: A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case (N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also nonexistent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart.
Stealth Communication: Zero-Power Classical Communication, Zero-Quantum Quantum Communication and Environmental-Noise Communication
Laszlo B. Kish
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1063/1.2140073
Abstract: An alternative physical way of communication, communication by the inherent background noise, is proposed which does not need net energy transfer in the information channel. The communicator devices do dissipate energy; however, they do not emit net energy into the channel, instead of that, they modulate the parameters of inherent spontaneous fluctuations in the channel. The method can use two different mechanisms, thermal noise (Johnson-Nyquist noise) for classical communication, and vacuum fluctuations/zero point energy (quantum uncertainty noise) for quantum communication. The strongest advantage of the method that this is apparently the most hidden (stealth) way of communication, because it is using the inherent background noise for communication, therefore it is extremely difficult or impossible to discover its presence. With proper wave-based arrangements and specific conditions, the sender and the receiver can easily detect eavesdropper activities, so that the eavesdropper is detected as soon as she extracts a single bit of information, thus the security of the method is comparable to the security of quantum communication/quantum key distribution schemes. Finally, concerning practical applications, environmental noise, out of the fundamental/inherent fluctuations, can also be used for this kind of communication provided that is sufficiently stationary.
Long Response to Scheuer-Yariv: "A Classical Key-Distribution System based on Johnson (like) noise - How Secure?", physics/0601022
Laszlo B. Kish
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: This is the longer (partially unpublished) version of response; the shorter version (http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0605013) is published in Physics Letters A. We point out that the claims in the comment-paper of Scheuer and Yariv are either irrelevant or incorrect. We first clarify what the security of a physically secure layer means. The idealized Kirchoff-loop-Johnson-like-noise (KLJN) scheme is totally secure therefore it is more secure than idealized quantum communication schemes which can never be totally secure because of the inherent noise processes in those communication schemes and the statistical nature of eavesdropper detection based on error statistics. On the other hand, with sufficient resources, a practical/non-ideal realization of the KLJN cipher can arbitrarily approach the idealized limit and outperform even the idealized quantum communicator schemes because the non-ideality-effects are determined and controlled by the design. The cable resistance issue analyzed by Scheuer and Yariv is a good example for that because the eavesdropper has insufficient time window to build a sufficient statistics and the actual information leak can be designed. We show that Scheuer's and Yariv's numerical result of 1% voltage drop supports higher security than that of quantum communicators. Moreover, choosing thicker or shorter wires can arbitrarily reduce this voltage drop further; the same conclusion holds even according to the equations of Scheuer and Yariv.
Page 1 /145087
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.