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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4553 matches for " Lars Olsson "
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Differences in the Defense Mechanism Technique modified (DMTm) between Depressive and Somatoform Disorder Patients  [PDF]
Lars Olsson
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2015.41001
Abstract: Differences in the Defense Mechanism Technique modified (DMTm), a percept-genetic tachistoscopic technique, between 56 patients with a main diagnosis of mild, moderate or severe unipolar depression and 42 with a main diagnosis of somatoform disorder were studied. As expected, the affect defenses of inhibition, introaggression and barrier isolation—all through their specified motive related to the depressive position of the affect positions model of the Andersson developmental and psychodynamic model of the mind—appeared more often with the depressive than the somatoform patients. Repression scored at the place of the threatening person in the DMTm pictures (Pp-repression) was more often found with the depressive patients, projected introaggression and no Pp-repression but repression scored at the place of the non-threatening person (H-repression) with the somatoform. In total less than four scorings of affect anxiety and affect defense, seen to indicate alexithymia, characterized the somatoform patients and those with mild depression. Denial through reversal II 3 and denial through reversal IV were common with the somatoform patients and those with severe depression. Denial was uncommon with mild depression. Denial, denial through reversal II 3 and denial through reversal IV increased the more severe the depression. The findings were interpreted according to the Andersson model.
The integrated care pathway reduced the number of hospital days by half: a prospective comparative study of patients with acute hip fracture
Lars-Eric Olsson, Jón Karlsson, Inger Ekman
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1749-799x-1-3
Abstract: A nonrandomized prospective study comparing a consecutive series of patients treated by the conventional pathway to a newer intervention. 112 independently living patients aged 65 years or older admitted to the hospital with a hip fracture were consecutively selected. Exclusion criteria were pathological fracture and severe cognitive impairment. An ICP was developed with the intention of creating a care path with rapid pre-operative attention, increased continuity and an accelerated training programme based on the individual patient's prerequisites and was used as a guidance for each patient's tailored care in the intervention group (N = 56) The main outcome measure was the length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were the amount of time from the emergency room to the ward, to surgery and to first ambulation, as well as in-hospital complications and 30-day readmission rate.The intervention group had a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (12.2 vs. 26.3 days; p < 0.000), a shorter time to first ambulation (41 vs. 49 h; p = 0.01), fewer pressure wounds (8 vs. 19; p = 0.02) and medical complications (5 vs. 14; p = 0.003) than the comparison group. No readmissions occurred within 30 days post-intervention in either group.Implementing an ICP for patients with a hip fracture was found to significantly reduce the length of hospital stay and improve the quality of care.Hip fractures represent an increasing health problem in the Western world, mainly because the aging world's population. For instance, in the USA 350,000 incidents per year occur [1] and in the European Union 500,000 persons sustain a hip fracture per year [2]. In Sweden, the number of persons with a hip fracture is 18,000 and approximately 90% of them are over 65 years old, with more than half being octogenarians [3]. The incidence of hip fracture is expected to increase during the coming years [4], demanding greater resources and improved effectiveness on this group of patients. The challenge lie
A case-control study of rheumatoid arthritis identifies an associated single nucleotide polymorphism in the NCF4 gene, supporting a role for the NADPH-oxidase complex in autoimmunity
Lina M Olsson, Anna-Karin Lindqvist, Henrik K?llberg, Leonid Padyukov, Harald Burkhardt, Lars Alfredsson, Lars Klareskog, Rikard Holmdahl
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/ar2299
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to erosion and deformation of the joints. The prevalence in the general population is 0.5% to 1%, and women are at two to three times greater risk for developing the disease. Twin studies show a concordance rate of 12% to 15% in monozygotic twins and 4% in dizygotic twins, and the genetic heritability is estimated at 60% [1]. Despite much effort to identify arthritis causing genes, only few genetic loci have been confirmed to be associated with RA, among which are the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) locus and the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 gene (PTPN22) [2-4].RA is a heterogeneous disease with symptoms and disease progression that vary between patients. Classification of typical RA requires fulfilment of four out of seven criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology [5]. The heterogeneity of the symptoms in RA probably mirrors the underlying genetic contribution; hence, the various combinations of symptoms observed in patients are probably caused by different combinations of risk alleles.In the search for markers that can predict development of the disease before its onset, several autoantibodies, including rheumatoid factors (RFs) and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP antibodies), have been detected [6-8]. RFs, autoantibodies that recognize the Fc part of immunoglobulins [9], are present in 60% to 70% of RA patients and have been found to be associated with more severe clinical manifestations [10,11]. Anti-CCP antibodies are present in 50% to 60% of RA patients and have also been shown to predict more severe disease [10,12-14]. Interestingly, recent data suggest that the HLA-DRB1 locus, which has been shown to be associated with RA, is only associated with the presence of anti-CCP antibodies, and this association is independent of both RA development and the presence of RFs [15]. Together with recent data describing the interaction between
Phylogeny-Based Comparative Methods Question the Adaptive Nature of Sporophytic Specializations in Mosses
Sanna Huttunen, Sanna Olsson, Volker Buchbender, Johannes Enroth, Lars Heden?s, Dietmar Quandt
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048268
Abstract: Adaptive evolution has often been proposed to explain correlations between habitats and certain phenotypes. In mosses, a high frequency of species with specialized sporophytic traits in exposed or epiphytic habitats was, already 100 years ago, suggested as due to adaptation. We tested this hypothesis by contrasting phylogenetic and morphological data from two moss families, Neckeraceae and Lembophyllaceae, both of which show parallel shifts to a specialized morphology and to exposed epiphytic or epilithic habitats. Phylogeny-based tests for correlated evolution revealed that evolution of four sporophytic traits is correlated with a habitat shift. For three of them, evolutionary rates of dual character-state changes suggest that habitat shifts appear prior to changes in morphology. This suggests that they could have evolved as adaptations to new habitats. Regarding the fourth correlated trait the specialized morphology had already evolved before the habitat shift. In addition, several other specialized “epiphytic” traits show no correlation with a habitat shift. Besides adaptive diversification, other processes thus also affect the match between phenotype and environment. Several potential factors such as complex genetic and developmental pathways yielding the same phenotypes, differences in strength of selection, or constraints in phenotypic evolution may lead to an inability of phylogeny-based comparative methods to detect potential adaptations.
Downscaling of Short-Term Precipitation from Regional Climate Models for Sustainable Urban Planning
Jonas Olsson,Lars Gidhagen,Valentin Gamerith,Günter Gruber,Holger Hoppe,Peter Kutschera
Sustainability , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/su4050866
Abstract: A framework for downscaling precipitation from RCM projections to the high resolutions in time and space required in the urban hydrological climate change impact assessment is outlined and demonstrated. The basic approach is that of Delta Change, developed for both continuous and event-based applications. In both cases, Delta Change Factors (DCFs) are calculated which represent the expected future change of some key precipitation statistics. In the continuous case, short-term precipitation from climate projections are analysed in order to estimate DCFs associated with different percentiles in the frequency distribution of non-zero intensities. The DCFs may then be applied to an observed time series, producing a realisation of a future time series. The event-based case involves downscaling of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves based on extreme value analysis of annual maxima using the Gumbel distribution. The resulting DCFs are expressed as a function of duration and frequency (i.e., return period) and may be used to estimate future design storms. The applications are demonstrated in case studies focusing on the expected changes in short-term precipitation statistics until 2100 in the cities of Linz (Austria) and Wuppertal (Germany). The downscaling framework is implemented in the climate service developed within the EU-project SUDPLAN.
Muscle wasting and the temporal gene expression pattern in a novel rat intensive care unit model
Monica Llano-Diez, Ann-Marie Gustafson, Carl Olsson, Hanna Goransson, Lars Larsson
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-602
Abstract: During the observation period, 1583 genes were significantly up- or down-regulated by factors of two or greater. A significant temporal gene expression pattern was constructed at short (6 h-4 days), intermediate (5-8 days) and long (9-14 days) durations. A striking early and maintained up-regulation (6 h-14d) of muscle atrogenes (muscle ring-finger 1/tripartite motif-containing 63 and F-box protein 32/atrogin-1) was observed, followed by an up-regulation of the proteolytic systems at intermediate and long durations (5-14d). Oxidative stress response genes and genes that take part in amino acid catabolism, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, muscle development, and protein synthesis together with myogenic factors were significantly up-regulated from 5 to 14 days. At 9-14 d, genes involved in immune response and the caspase cascade were up-regulated. At 5-14d, genes related to contractile (myosin heavy chain and myosin binding protein C), regulatory (troponin, tropomyosin), developmental, caveolin-3, extracellular matrix, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, cytoskeleton/sarcomere regulation and mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated. An activation of genes related to muscle growth and new muscle fiber formation (increase of myogenic factors and JunB and down-regulation of myostatin) and up-regulation of genes that code protein synthesis and translation factors were found from 5 to 14 days.Novel temporal patterns of gene expression have been uncovered, suggesting a unique, coordinated and highly complex mechanism underlying the muscle wasting associated with AQM in ICU patients and providing new target genes and avenues for intervention studies.All critically ICU patients suffer from severe wasting and impaired muscle function, which delay respirator weaning and persist long after hospital discharge; thus reducing quality of life [1,2]. Although muscle wasting in ICU patients may be related to the primary disease, it also devolves from the interventions used in modern anaesthesi
Impacts of patient characteristics on hospital care experience in 34,000 Swedish patients
Axel Wolf, Lars-Eric Olsson, Charles Taft, Karl Swedberg, Inger Ekman
BMC Nursing , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-11-8
Abstract: A retrospective cross-sectional study design was used. Patients discharged from internal medicine wards at regional and university hospitals in different parts of Sweden during 2010 were invited to participate in the regularly administered national care-experience survey for hospital care. The internal validity of the PPE-15 was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha and item-scale correlations. Pearson product–moment correlation coefficients were used to compare PPE-15 total scores with overall care satisfaction ratings and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to compare PPE-15 total scores with various patient characteristics. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of various patient characteristics on PPE-15 scores.The response rate was 66% (n?=?34 603). Cronbach’s alpha was 0.87. The correlation between the PPE-15 total score and overall care satisfaction was high (0.62, p?<?0.0001). Good self-rated health (SRH) and having Swedish as native language were associated with better care experiences and poorer experiences with greater healthcare utilization, higher age, functional impairment and being female. All examined characteristics, except language, were significant predictors in the regression model and SRH was the strongest predictor; however, the model explained only 7% of the total variance. Vulnerable patients (i.e. poor SRH and functional impairment) reported significantly less positive care experiences than did non-vulnerable patients (mean PPE-15 score 75 vs 85; p?<?0.0001).Our results supported the internal validity of the Swedish adapted version of the PPE-15. The explanatory value of the examined patient socio-demographic and health characteristics was low, suggesting the need for exploring other patient-related determinants of care experiences. Our findings also suggest a care paradox: patients in greatest need of hospital care are least satisfied with the quality of the care they receive.
A cost-effectiveness study of cost of care and health consequences for two modes of treatment for patients with hip fractures
Lars-Eric Olsson,Elisabeth Hansson,Inger Ekman,Jón Karlsson
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2008,
Abstract:
Campylobacter jejuni Actively Invades the Amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Survives within Non Digestive Vacuoles
Jenny Olofsson, Diana Axelsson-Olsson, Lars Brudin, Bj?rn Olsen, Patrik Ellstr?m
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078873
Abstract: The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is able to enter, survive and multiply within the free living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but the molecular mechanisms behind these events are still unclear. We have studied the uptake and intracellular trafficking of viable and heat killed bacterial cells of the C. jejuni strain 81–176 in A. polyphaga. We found that viable bacteria associated with a substantially higher proportion of Acanthamoeba trophozoites than heat killed bacteria. Furthermore, the kinetics of internalization, the total number of internalized bacteria as well as the intracellular localization of internalized C. jejuni were dramatically influenced by bacterial viability. Viable bacteria were internalized at a high rate already after 1 h of co-incubation and were observed in small vacuoles tightly surrounding the bacteria. In contrast, internalization of heat killed C. jejuni was low at early time points and did not peak until 96 h. These cells were gathered in large spacious vacuoles that were part of the degradative pathway as determined by the uptake of fluorescently labeled dextran. The amount of heat killed bacteria internalized by A. polyphaga did never reach the maximal amount of internalized viable bacteria. These results suggest that the uptake and intracellular survival of C. jejuni in A. polyphaga is bacterially induced.
Midwife’s experiences of using intuition as a motivating element in conveying assurance and care  [PDF]
Agneta Olsson, Annsofie Adolfsson
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.37075
Abstract: The expectations of a successful outcome during childbirth are high for all of the parties concerned. The overall objective of prenatal care and birth care is that midwives contribute to create the most positive experience for the expectant parents concerning their pregnancy, the actual childbirth and the child’s infancy. During the past thirty years, there has been a significant increase in Caesarean section frequency both in Sweden and in the rest of the Western World. More parents feel an overall insecurity when it comes to the labor phase leading up to childbirth. The purpose of this study was to describe how midwives experience their work of creating a sense of security and providing good nursing care when meeting with the expectant parents. A phenomenological approach was implemented using eleven qualitative interviews and these were analyzed with Giorgis’ method of analysis. The results of this analysis revealed three themes: organizational-professional conditions, the communicative ability of the midwives and their reflective-emotional competence. The ability of the midwives to trust their inner sensibility and intuition was something that was characteristic of all the interviews and consequently this was the essence of the results. Managements’ organization of the workload and how management utilized competent and experienced midwives affected the midwives’ ability to contribute to a sense of security and provide competent nursing care for expectant parents. When the communication was based on sensibility and compassion, the midwives’ were enabled to create a sound and trusting relationship between themselves, the MVC and with the expectant parents. The emotional involvement on the part of the midwives was an essential requirement for carrying out the work in a satisfactory manner. Perhaps a question for future research is how inner knowledge based on practical experience can benefit new personnel and how the organization and the education of healthcare providers can utilize the intuitive knowledge of midwives.
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